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Alice Walker’s The Color Purple: A tale of every Black Woman’s life


The Color Purple by Alice Walker is a novel that will tug at the strings of your heart and leave your mesmerized. It is the story of a black teenage girl, Celie, born in poverty and segregation of the 20th century South. It narrates her gradual growth as a human being as she begins to define her own self worth and finds joy in her life with the help of other strong women in her life. Despite being abused and neglected by her father and husband, she finds a new meaning to her life by overcoming the oppression of the world who is against her.

The Color Purple by Alice Walker is one of those books that will leave you mesmerized at the sheer power of the words and force you to think on profound questions about the human society we have made.

The novel paints a poignant picture of Celie, a black girl born in immense hardship in Georgia. Facing discrimination and neglect, she is sexually abused by her own father and gives birth to two children; both of whom are snatched away from her. She is forbidden to tell anyone except God about her abuse and hence she narrates her trauma in painful letters written to God.

Celie is a meek girl who is trampled over by everybody. The only person who cares about her is her sister Nettie, but she runs away soon thereafter. Trapped in an ugly marriage with a man who is left unnamed and his children who treat her like a servant. Celie’s only support is Shug Avery, a carefree singer who lives life on her own terms. Although their relationship is frosty at first, Shug and Celie become close together and eventually lovers. Shug inspires Celie to rebel and believe in herself. For the first time in life, Celie feels alive and valid because of Shug.

Credits: Alamy Stock Photo

The novel is a reminder that millions of black women like Celie stay invisible their entire lives living in poverty, segregation and abuse. Although Celie has a “happy” ending as she learns to stand up for herself and makes her own choices, many women are still shackled by racism and patriarchy. Their beautiful souls underneath are never revealed or set free but instead their lives are reduced to mere roles they must play.

Looking at Celie’s life from the perspective of intersectionality, Alice Walker narrates the life of a woman who learns to love herself despite the society shunning expression by women. Women in the novel form each others’ support system as they face the same oppression and neglect. Celie’s journey of self discovery leads her to realise her own self worth. Purple which represents freedom, courage, dignity and femininity is realized by Celie as she learns to fight for herself. The novel was the first of its kind and has had a profound socio-cultural impact. Although the story is fictional, the novel is still real because it is a truthful account that mirrors the experiences of black communities in the South. The Color Purple is a timeless classic that is a must read for everyone.

Gunjit Verma is a student pursuing Chemistry Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Ambrisha Zubeen

Fact-check Unit : A free pass for the Government to enforce Censorship


The state of freedom enjoyed by journalists in India has been on the decline. The Indian press was ranked 150th out of 180 in the World Press Freedom Index released by Reporters without Borders in 2022. It can be said that this is due to the increasing censorship aiding mechanisms adopted by various governments at the centre.

Being the fourth pillar of democracy, the media has always been an impediment for politicians hungry for power. While its job is to bring out the truth in front of the public, politicians have always succeeded in implementing policies that limit its ability to speak out. These policies are at times presented quite appealingly in the form of laws, but it’s the journalists who are aware of the monstrosity that lies behind it all.

Under the guise of enacting laws to curb terrorism, these laws have been constantly used against common citizens, journalists, and students who chose to criticise the Union. Throughout the course of history, the government of India has imposed censorship and other laws, mainly to cover up its shortcomings. The UAPA, the Sedition Act and Preventive Detention Law are some examples. Making illegitimate use of such laws, governments have been able to ensure restrictions on press freedom, at times giving the excuse that journalists and media reports are a “threat to national security.”

The Indira Gandhi government in 1975 imposed complete censorship of the press during the emergency, prohibiting all domestic and international news. In 2016, the Srinagar-based newspaper “Kashmir Reader” was asked to stop production on grounds that it contained context that tends to incite violence. Recently, the BJP government banned a BBC documentary featuring Prime Minister Nadrendra Modi and his role during the Gujarat riots of 2002 because it had an anti-Modi agenda.

While many activists have been constantly fighting against the abolition of such laws, the government of India announced the creation of a fact-check unit, which imposes even more restrictions on the freedom of the press.

In January 2023, the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MEITY) announced the Information Technology Amendment Rules, 2023. It authorises a “fact-check unit” of the central government to identify fake, false, or misleading information that is solely concerned with the central government. The purpose is to prevent the spread of misinformation and ensure harmony in the country without diminishing any fundamental values of the citizens.

The department will investigate online comments, news reports, and opinions about ministries and government officials. Any content flagged as fake or misleading will have to be taken down by the intermediary platforms like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter within a stipulated time limit to avoid any legal action, and internet service providers like Airtel and Jio will have to block URLs to the content. Failure to do so could lead to social media platforms losing the safe harbour protection offered to them under Section 79 of the IT Act, according to which an intermediary shall not be held liable for any third-party data or communication link hosted by it. Moreover, the government has laid down no provisions that specify what it deems fake. This means that the units’ decisions will be highly subjective and not susceptible to judicial review, unless, of course, the concerned party moves to court. Whilst there is an increasing tension regarding the misuse of this power by the centre, the Minister of State for Electronics and IT says that these doubts will be soon addressed.

The move has faced considerable criticism by the Editors Guild, Digipub, civil rights activists, the News Broadcasters and Digital Association, and several independent lawyers and journalists who stated that the determination of fake news cannot be in the sole hands of the government.

Even after much criticism, the central government has not withdrawn the creation of the fact-check unit. It has now announced certain amendments to the act to make it appear more appetizing, which seem to be only gift-wrapping this draconian step.

This measure has been put forth under the pretext of curbing the spread of misinformation, but in fact seems to widen the scope of online censorship. It gives the government a free, non-answerable way to flag any information critical of the government as misleading. No democracy in the world puts such restrictions on freedom of expression. It gives intermediaries absolutely no option for escaping this censorship exercise other than to face a lawsuit.

Misinformation can instigate violence, but the very basis of this framework is a threat to digital expression. Keeping in mind that “a free press can, of course, be good or bad, but, most certainly without freedom, the press will never be anything but bad,” citizens need to grasp the gravity of this situation. We live in a society where laws are increasingly weaponised to curb opposition and dissent. If not now, then in a few years, a law such as this one will be misused by the government, as it always has been. This unit of the central government responsible for fact-checking whatever is reported seems more like a unit of the central government keeping everything that is being reported in check.

Bushra Faridi is a student pursuing Geography Hons from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Syed Ilham Jafri

India’s uncanny obsession with Oscars


A huge surge of happiness rushed over the country when the song “Naatu Naatu” from the blockbuster Telugu film RRR won the Best Original Song at the 95th Academy Awards, surpassing the giants of western industry. The celebration around India making history in the global platform by winning an Oscar has been received with mixed feelings. On one hand where Modi’s India is basking a new archetype of new India that no longer vestiges its propaganda on the colonial hangover. Seeking of western validation of such accolades takes it back to where it all began, wrapped in chains, the sense of déjà vu!

Credits: Film Companion

India’s obsession over Oscars has a history whose prime example stretches back to the time when Kamal Hassan’s fans used to call him Oscar Nayaga. People found his talent onscreen to be worthy enough of their money spent on tickets and recognised him as the Oscar hero even though he never won one. This action of Indian audiences was again displayed when Rajnikant’s fans mobbed out of cinema after watching Darbar (2020) and shouted addressing the then US President to give an Oscar to their megastar. This went on to become an iconic meme and now even apart from films or actors, anything and everything too dramatic is tagged as “Oscar winning performance,” pushing forward this western validation at peak. On the contrary when someone actually gets an Oscar from India, thousands stand as critics debating if they deserve it or not.

This year’s Oscars nominations came as a surprise as it bunched more Asian works than ever. Everything Everywhere All At Once, the Asian American indie hit triumphed at the Oscars bagging seven awards in the major categories. However it’s also an unusual year for India who from a long time stayed the audience witnessing the Academy wins, made the western hands clap for its achievements this time. The epic action RRR became the first Indian full length feature film to win the Best Original Song for its energetic dance number “Naatu Naatu” that made all feets sway. Meanwhile, “The Elephant Whisperers,” a Netflix documentary from Kartiki Gonsalves and Guneet Monga won the Best Documentary Short award. Although the twin win is well deserved, it also misplaced the path of India decorating her self esteem rooted in the cultural quintessence and thus met with mixed public opinions.

Credits: The Economic Times

RRR transcended the boundaries and entertained masses like no other film but the Indian public have been divided, half dived into the celebration of the win of an Indian song, and then there are those disclosing their disappointment at the inappropriate portrayal of the Adhivasi culture. Nevertheless it is of no concern to the Academy or the Oscars as they always viewed an Indian film full of grandiosity and what we call in Chetan Bhagat’s language, overdosed with “masala” served to the dull life of common people. Honouring with their highest award to a movie presenting the brutality suffered by Indians imposed by the British colonial rulers may make the Golden Globe jury appear as doing a golden deed and shedding their guilt of racism and discrimination but in reality it can never be the ointment to the wounds of a country beaming with talents and stories.

Indians obsessing over Oscars equalises to the west recognising works laudable of their praise only when it’s “Indian enough”. It was not the first time nominations from India made to the event, in the past we see Slumdog Millionaire that showcased poverty stricken Mumbai which is a reflection of a society that the Britishers left to breed, sweeping 8 awards in 2009. Whereas Lagaan that strongly portrayed the Britishers’ infliction on poor Indians, being nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film didn’t receive the same award. Coming to the present year, the Oscar was for the song not film and yet this categorization of jury moreover added to the fact that RRR is nothing more than a Telugu masala film whose few steps of dance attracted the western audiences.

Filmmaker Kabir Khan once said, “I think we are unnecessarily obsessed with Oscars. Let’s not forget that Oscars is an award ceremony for the US Film industry which has one category amongst the various categories called best foreign film.” Similarly the veteran actor, Manoj Kumar made a comment, “We should create an award here in our country. Hollywood actors should crave to get that. Why do we have this fascination about Oscars? We know the manipulation here. If a film is liked in our country, what else do you want?

Credits: The New Yorker

Thus, it’s high time we come to terms that Oscars or Grammys are mere Hollywood accolades. India can never set itself free if it continues to obsess over western validations and from time to time, someone representing India will be making himself and the country a subject of mockery at the global platform by accenting English unnecessarily!

Sania Parween is a student pursuing English Hons from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Rutba Manzoor

Meaninglessness of Life: The God Hole


An interesting concept arising out of religions, especially Abrahamic ones, is that there is a giant God-shaped hole inside of us that can only be filled with religion and God itself. The infinite abyss can be filled only with an infinite and immutable object, in other words, by God himself. Attempting to fill it with worldly desires and pleasures will lead to a feeling of incompleteness and despair. The God Hole is an imaginary construct, but nonetheless, it tells us something about our deepest desires for longing and our search for meaning in life.

In S7E4 of the evergreen TV series It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Dennis, the charismatic sociopath, in a rare moment of self-introspection, confesses to his equally narcissistic father, Frank, that “I need something. I mean, I got this giant, gaping hole inside me. And I’m always trying to fill it with something. I like to call it my God Hole. And I think a lot of people in this world, they fill it with religion. But I don’t believe in God.”

The entire conversation is meant to be more funny and crude than a philosophical commentary on modern life, but Dennis perfectly describes the dilemma of the modern man, who is lost, estranged, and looking for validation and meaning. Religion, from time immemorial, has served as a social institution. Rituals, beliefs, and symbols help to answer the most fundamental question of life: What is our purpose on Earth? Religion helps alleviate people’s fears and provides them with a meaning for their suffering.

However, for good or bad, the influence of religion has declined over the decades. The wave of secularization swept over the West in the late 20th century and is now increasingly gaining acceptance in Asia. People are more educated, wealthy, and safe and secure than at any point in human history before, and hence the need for religion to provide answers is gone.

The unraveling of religion from human society is an irreversible process, and even if people do not explicitly leave their religion, like atheists, agnostics, or irreligious, religiosity is certainly on the decline. You are less religious than your parents, and your children will be less religious than you. However, who or what will fulfill the function that religion once fulfilled? We try to fill our god hole with social media, Netflix, porn, drugs, and a lot more. Earlier, we found escapism through God; now we find it in Instagram reels. We are still left with the original question, “Is there a God hole inside of us that can only be filled by God and nothing else?

As religion declines and technology causes us to work even less, we are left with an even bigger abyss inside us that yearns for a purpose and a meaning to this universe. This feeling cannot be done away with it. Under the Dual Process Model, System 1 thinking in our brain is the fast, automatic, unconscious, emotional thinking that explains our belief in religion. We find religious beliefs plausible and attractive because they provide soothing to our existential insecurity. Death, suffering, and randomness are all made tolerable by the fact that there is someone watching over us.

Human beings naturally want to believe that they are a part of something bigger and that life isn’t completely futile. Our minds crave purpose and explanation. Religion is the path of least resistance. Our brains are naturally wired to look towards a greater force that guides this world. No amount of rational thinking or science can fix this innate desire inside of us.

It is clear that there is a God hole inside of us. It cannot be done away with. The question is, do we fill it with answers that religion provides us with, or do we fill it with worldly pleasures like Dennis Reynolds? The answer is neither. Religion is bad, and it’s good that people are finally recognizing that we do not need it. However, moving from one form of illusion to another still leaves us living in fantasies. We ought to engage in rational thinking and recognize that what was told to us in our childhood is deeply problematic.

At the same time, we must learn to adapt to this consumerist and technological world that is obsessed with achieving quick dopamine rushes. The hole inside of you remains a hole because we are trying to escape from something. We do not trust ourselves or our abilities to feel secure on our own. We do not need to rely on external agents to feel good about ourselves. The first step to filling the God hole is to decide how you want to tackle the meaninglessness of life. It would be helpful if you recognized your passions, your values, and your goals and lived life with self-awareness and individuality. Forming meaningful relationships is one way of achieving a sense of stability and security. Religion and Hedonism offer easy answers to filling the God Hole but remember, no one can fill your God Hole, except you. You have to face your insecurities, stare into your hole, and let it stare back at you.

Gunjit Verma is a student pursuing Chemistry Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

Jennifer Haynes: A Landmark Case Towards Validating Dissociative Identities

Trigger warning: child sexual abuse, assault.

Dissociative Identity Disorder, also widely known as Multiple Personality Disorder or Split Personality, can be defined as a coping mechanism created by the brain to protect the individual undergoing a severe trauma and also to create an inbuilt support system for them. The individuals prone to the development of the given disorder are largely children. In one such case, Jenni Haynes, a fifty-two years old Australian woman developed over 2,500 personalities/alters to cope with the psychological, physical, and sexual abuse inflicted upon her by her father.

Credits: DailyMail

Jenni was being abused and brutalised by her father Richard Haynes since she was a toddler. The abuse included sexual assault, psychological manipulation, and physical damage. To cope with the trauma, her brain developed Symphony, her first alter at the age of four. Symphony herself is a four-year-old toddler who loves Jenni and deeply cares for her. Her job was to endure all the abuse alone so it doesn’t reach Jenni. A few other main alters include Judas, an eleven-year-old boy, and Muscles, a strong teenager. Muscle’s job is to take action and protect Jenni from the inflicted abuse. All these personalities have been living in her brain, and have their own designated spaces. The few mentioned are the ones that stay with her throughout, and keep on taking the stage regularly. The alters or the host doesn’t quite have the exact memory of experiences of the other alters, but they do recognize the sounds, smells, and sights of them. Jenni’s autistic mother couldn’t detect the ongoing situation, as she was being heavily drugged by her vile husband. When Jenni grew up and started to tell her story and seek help, the police didn’t believe her. The system and the society were uncooperative and insensitive. Her struggle of seeking justice took several years off her life until she met detective sergeant Paul. He was one of the few who believed in her and helped her in getting the justice she longed for. Upon serious investigation, the shocking and horrendous details of the crime were brought to light which shook the judiciary. Symphony recently sued her father and won the case. The most crucial element of the judgement was the testimony of toddler Symphony who explained her agonies in great detail leaving the court numb. This was perhaps the first testimony of a dissociative personality to be recorded and validated by the judiciary. Richard Haynes, at the age of 77, pleaded guilty was sentenced to 45 years in prison, marking the toughest penalty for child abuse in Australian history. The case turned out to be a landmark for the acceptance of exceptional factors like split personalities in the judicial process in Australia.

Credits: BigW

Despite her diagnoses and trauma, Dr Jenni pursued a degree in psychology, a masters in criminology and a phd. With the help of her psychiatrist, she has written a book expressing her traumatic life and experiences called ‘THE GIRL WITH A GREEN DRESS’, which, as she states “has a happy ending“. Jennifer has forgiven her mother for her absence and they both share a close bond with each other. She states that she is in the process of overcoming her fears and healing from the trauma. She is a living example of courage and strength and is currently making efforts to reclaim her life from the hands of the monster.

Ashna Arif is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Ambrisha Zubeen

The student’s dilemma- determining the efficacies of collegiate education


Having one of the largest youth populations, the country is tasked with the challenge to accommodate millions of students trying to pursue higher education every year. The same students who are indispensable to India’s growth and development. Yet every year, they are faced with the inadequacies of a system that fails them and forces them to make choices inimical to their goals and aspirations.

It is not an exaggeration to say that entering college marks a milestone in every young adult’s life. Perhaps more so in the Indian context. A lot would agree when I say that for many students, getting into college is an imperative which, according to them directs how successful in life they will get. It is not surprising to hear parents pouring in lakhs into their child’s education for coaching, exam preps, entrance preps, anything and everything necessary to get their child into a ‘good’ college which would safeguard their chances of getting a ‘good’ job- the assured way of becoming an upstanding, respectable member of society. The reason for our societies’ obsessive emphasis on entering a ‘good’ college is fairly understandable.

Credits: Report to JAB

For a developing country like India, a college degree is a certified option which guarantees a higher standard for people in terms of employment, income, and all-round development. With the rising costs of higher education, for many students, getting into a good government institute assures them a high standard of education, with greatly reduced financial pressure. Therefore, it is not surprising that the competition is fierce for said institutions with hundreds competing for one seat. While it is justified for there to be competition for top premier institutes, the absurdity of the figures that come up glaringly point to a much deeply embedded problem within the college education system as a whole.

The vision for higher education in India has been to realize and develop the country’s human resource potential to its fullest for the growth and development of the country. It was with this vision that all the way back in 1950s, the first IIT – a reflection of the top premier institutes of the country came into existence. Back then it was meant to be a symbol for the new India which represented its urges, aspirations and future in the making. A platform which gave students the best facilities to innovate, research and develop for the prosperity of the country.

Fast forward 70 or so years, the status quo remains the same. However, what was begun as an endeavor towards promoting higher education is now seen as the final product. Rather than building more institutes with similar standards of education, priority is given to upgrading the already well funded faculties which becomes an issue when we consider the vacuum created by the lack of affordable quality education as the proportion of these top premier universities barely saw any increase. The aspirants appearing for entrances to these institutions soared up to staggering degrees.

Last year, 1.5 million students took the Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) to qualify for 13,000 seats in 23 IITs across the country — in other words, for each seat there were 115 aspirants. This figure is for IITs alone. The statistics for medical courses show even more absurd ratios.

So intense is the pressure and so grueling is the preparation required that students as young as 14 start the process, often missing out on the simple joys of adolescence. Most give up extra-curricular activities, relationships with friends and peers, and all forms of entertainment to achieve the goal. By the time they achieve their aim, if they do, many realize they have lost out on social skills, ability to communicate easily with others, and of course, some part of their youth.

India’s higher education system is the world’s third largest in terms of students, next to China and the United States. In future, India will be one of the largest education hubs. India’s Higher Education sector has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of Universities/University level Institutions & Colleges since independence. What has not increased, however, is the standard of education these universities and colleges provide. If anything, reports show that standards have further deteriorated. An example of this would be a 2019 report where it was found that 80% of the engineering graduates were unemployable because they lacked relevant digital skills that companies in an emerging market are looking to hire for.

What all of this concludes towards is a country with a young population desperately trying to get into colleges through fierce competition, and failing to do so costing them enormous financial burden, getting a standard of education which deprives them of necessary relevant skills required to enter the job market – resulting in the rise of educated unemployment. Issues such as inadequate expenditure, poor infrastructure, inadequate teaching staff, lack of updated curriculum, state funded public institutions which school a majority of students.

In brief, the qualitative goals of education face systemic and societal challenges. They cannot be resolved by individual academics or by an institution. There is a need to implement an innovative and transformational approach to higher education to make it more relevant and competitive globally. While some steps have been taken in the right direction, at present, the situation seems unyielding to change.

Ayera Tariq is a student pursuing Psychology Hons. from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Rutba Manzoor

The Pseudoscience Ecosystem


Despite the growth of science and technology in India and elsewhere, pseudoscience has unfortunately made a resounding comeback in recent years, especially in the medical field. Pseudoscience has a large, receptive audience that is looking for cheap and quick methods to get well soon despite any lack of evidence. In India, in particular, medicinal myths flourish in a government-backed ecosystem called the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy). Lack of scientific temper and a longing for the past make it easy for quacks and fraudsters to get away with it each day.

Pseudoscience, in simple words, is a system of beliefs and practices that claim to be scientific but are contrary to scientific methods. Pseudoscience in medicine has been a problem for a long time because not only does it teach people to be skeptical of consuming safe medicines, but it also discourages reason and logic, forcing them to rely on faulty and dangerous methods. For example, the anti-vaccine movement targets vulnerable groups of people by misrepresenting the side effects of vaccines and encouraging parents to not give life saving vaccines to their kids.

Credits: IndiaCurrents

In India, pseudoscience is well established and firmly rooted in our society. Even though the literacy rate has gone up, a lack of scientific temper and proper knowledge serves as fertile ground for pseudoscience to gain a stranglehold. It is highly popular in India across all regions, religions, and cultures. In 2014, the government established the Ministry of Ayush, which is responsible for developing education, research, and propagation of traditional medicine systems in India. Ayush is a name devised from the names of the alternative healthcare systems covered by the ministry: Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy.

On first glance, there is nothing wrong with looking towards the traditional knowledge of our ancient culture. India is a civilization that has contributed much to philosophy, science, and mathematics. However, such traditional and “alternative” medicine systems have been repeatedly debunked, proven to be fraud, and even harmful in some cases. These medicinal systems rely on vague and exaggerated claims without rigorous clinical trials or any evidence backing them. The false dichotomy between “Western” and “Indian” science serves to widen this wishful thinking among millions. The notion that scientific knowledge can be labeled as “Eastern” or “Western” is simply wrong; scientific knowledge belongs to the entire humanity.

These medicinal systems are bad not because they are Indian but simply because they are pseudoscientific. There are several such methods popular in the West too, like Reiki, crystal healing, etc. Accepting that modern methods of medicine that have undergone research and trials are good for health shouldn’t be this difficult. The debate should not be centered on cultural and emotional issues but rather on scientific merits. However, the department of AYUSH has channelized and validated the pseudoscience that was earlier on the fringe.

Pseudoscientific practitioners have been promoted by previous governments too, but the use of pseudoscience has exploded since 2014. AYUSH was declared an official ministry, and its budget has more than doubled in the past years. With this, the narrative of the glorious revival of the ancient culture and a return to the traditional past is given more impetus. However, it is a great misfortune that a government and its ministers, who take their oath on the constitution, do not follow its most basic principles. The constitution says that it is the fundamental duty of every citizen “to develop scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.”

However, the government and the people continue to believe in and propagate medicinal systems that lack any biological plausibility, efficacy, or credible clinical trials. Most of these practices have proven ineffective, and any benefit is attributed to the placebo effect (the idea that you will feel better if you simply believe that the medicine will make you better, even if the medicine is actually an inactive placebo). Despite a lack of pharmacological studies, the ministry continues to peddle unscientific claims like asking pregnant women not to have sex, recommending the herb “giloy” as an immunity booster against COVID-19, or advocating for sham drugs in the cases of dengue, AIDS, diabetes, etc.

Credits: Facebook

Ayurveda is based on poor-quality research and has been criticized for using toxic heavy metals like lead in its medicines. Naturopathy and homeopathy are simply health frauds that deceive people through ineffective, unethical, and potentially dangerous practices. Siddha, a practice popular in South India, and Unani, popular in Muslim culture, are also forms of quackery with no evidence in their favour. However, the fact of the matter is that these pseudoscientific practices are widely popular in India, and no amount of logical debate can convince people of the fraud. People are deeply distrustful of the white-coated doctor and would rather believe in mythical healers. The obsession and fascination with the ancient culture runs deep in our society. The lack of scientific temper and its consequences on society have been terrible, and it’s important that we disregard our long-held opinions and embrace rational thinking.

Gunjit Verma is a student pursuing Chemistry Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited byAmbrisha Zubeen

Enactus JMI organises SheFiesta as a continuation of their Women-centric Endeavours


Enactus JMI, one of the most prominent societies of the university, held their much anticipated event, SheFiesta in March 14. The event commenced with the recitation of the Holy Quran, followed by the Jamia Tarana. Enactus JMI then launched their new product, pantyliners. The chief guest, Professor Mini Shaji Thomas, who also happens to be the Dean of the Faculty of Engineering & Technology, shared her journey of following her passion of teaching. She addressed the audience to identify and follow their passions as well.

This was followed by the facilitation of women from Shram Vihar, a.k.a. Maharanis. These women are the backbone of Project Shrimati by Enactus JMI. The panelists were then introduced, and the new product was unveiled by the Chief Guest.

A panel discussion was then held on “Navigating the Waters of the Entrepreneurial Journey.” The panelists included Rani Parihar (MD of Axzora Group); Khansa Fahad (co-founder and COO of Gurucool); Meghna Joshi (founder of SWAN); Azfar Khan (CA and YouTuber); and Sana Sharif (founder of the Beginning Foundation). Questions on entrepreneurship for females, women in leadership roles, worklife balance, and other women-centric issues were asked by the vice presidents of Enactus JMI and the rest of the audience members. The panelists impressed everyone with their in-depth understanding and well-framed answers.

The women of Shram Vihar were also asked comparable questions, and they responded with equally strong answers. The discussion was a fruitful learning session as women from all backgrounds shared their incredible experiences and stories of failure and success.

The open-mic competition, Bayaan: Voicing the Unvoiced, was a package of entertainment and creative knowledge. The contestants presented a wide range of performances, from poetry recitation and singing to speaking their thoughts out, going with the theme of voicing the underprivileged, especially women whose voices are suppressed in a patriarchal society. The event attracted the majority of the audience and sparked the atmosphere with the anticipation of knowing the winners.

Tabdeeli: The Case for Change, a case study competition, went extremely well, with the goal of reaching a solution to the problem mentioned in the case being reached. The presentations were filled with new, innovative, and creative ideas. The event started with the introduction of the judges, after which we started with the competition. There were seven teams that participated in it: The Space, The Resilient, 180DC, The Blues, M6, and Karan Narang. The event ended on a positive note, where every member learned and gained in the end.

Sara Mehboobi, the Photography & Videography team head of Enactus JMI explained the rules to the participants for SheTog: Seeing the Unseen. The participants were then escorted around the entire campus to capture the thematic essence around them. They were required to submit their best-clicked photos along with a detailed caption.

The event concluded with the jury members giving out prizes for best performances in their respective teams. Gaurav Chakraborty, president of Enactus JMI, presented a vote of thanks to the organizing team, the participants, the jury members, and the chief guest. A trailer for an upcoming magazine by Enactus JMI declared SheFiesta a success!

Report by: Sania Parween for TJR

Entrepreneurship Cell JMI’s first-ever fest wrapped up with huge success!


Exuberance, an event organised by the E-cell on March 20, was brought to life by students and outsiders putting forward their skills and hobbies to be showcased at stalls. The stall items, ranging from food, clothing, jewellery, art, and others, exhibited the very spirit of E-cell. The event was inaugurated by Prof. Simi Malhotra, HOD, Jamia Millia Islamia. Soon after, competitions began with much anticipation and enthusiasm.

La-Affiche, a poster-making competition, and Bazm-e-Kalam, an essay and poetry competition, gave students a platform to showcase their hobbies in the perfect sense. Participants in Ideathon, a competition for concept presentations, and Sci-Lide Show, a competition for bio presentations, had to have the right knowledge and abilities to enable the judges comprehend their topics as well as possible.

The footballing talents got their game on in the FIFA tournament. It was an intense match between Paris Saint-Germain and Bayern Munich. The score was 4-0, giving a clear win to PSG.

A panel discussion was held between Umair Mohammad (founder of Wizgo and Angel Investor), Mubashshir Naseer (founder of Quilt Comfort), and Reshabh Sharma (founder and CEO of Sparrow), moderated by the business correspondent, Pushpita Dey. The discussion concerned te unique start-up atmosphere and the future of entrepreneurship in the country. Throughout the panel discussion, the three speakers shared experiences and anecdotes from their lives to help them connect better with the audience.

The winners were then felicitated by the esteemed panelists Umair Mohammad, Reshabh Sharma, and Mubashshir Naseer. The awards included vouchers worth ₹15,000 from Legal 24 by 7 for the Ideathon competition. The felicitation ceremony was followed by a vote of thanks.

The team of E-Cell JMI expressed special gratitude to the Entrepreneurship Cell of JMI for their immense support and guidance. The event concluded with a cultural fest, which had thrilling dance performances and melodious singing sessions.

Report by: Ambrisha Zubeen, Sarthak Parashar, and Bushra Faridi for TJR.

The Golden Age of Islam: A Catalyst for Advancements in Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine


The Golden Age of Islam, which spanned from the 8th to the 13th century, was a period of great intellectual, scientific, and artistic flourishing in the Islamic world. During this time, Muslim scholars made significant contributions to fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, art, and literature. Islamic values, such as the pursuit of knowledge and tolerance, played a significant role in these achievements. This essay will examine the Golden Age of Islam and its impact on Western culture. Through this examination, we will gain a better understanding of how the Golden Age of Islam continues to shape the world today.

Muslim scholars and intellectuals made significant contributions to fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, the arts, and literature during the Golden Age of Islam. Islamic values, such as the pursuit of knowledge, played a significant role in the Islamic civilization’s achievements during this period. The West, in turn, was inspired by the Islamic world’s values and achievements. This period is historically considered to have started during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) with the establishment of the House of Wisdom, which fascinated scholars from all over the Muslim world to Baghdad, the world’s largest city at the time, to translate the known world’s classical knowledge into Arabic and Persian. The period is traditionally thought to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate in 1258 as a result of Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad.

Credits: Islamic-Study

The pursuit of knowledge was central to Islamic culture during the Golden Age of Islam. Scholars from the Islamic world translated Greek texts into Arabic, allowing knowledge to spread throughout the Islamic world.

Many classic works of antiquity that would have been lost otherwise were translated from Greek, Persian, and Sanskrit into Syriac and Arabic, some of which were subsequently converted into Hebrew and Latin. This translation movement led to the development of new scientific ideas and theories, which led to advances in fields such as medicine and astronomy. Paper use spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century via mass production in Samarkand and Khorasan, eventually arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in the tenth century. It was less likely to crack than papyrus and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records.

The first person to introduce Aristotle‘s philosophy to the Arabs was Abu Yusuf Ya’qub ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi. Al-Ghazali was a Persian scholar who wrote The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which put logicians who supported Aristotelianism to the test. Maslama al-Majriti was an Arab astronomer and mathematician who deciphered Greek writings. Muslim scholars also made significant contributions to mathematics, developing algebra and trigonometry as well as making advances in geometry. These accomplishments had a significant impact on the Western world, for they were eventually translated into Latin and influenced European scholars during the Renaissance.

Credits: The Nation

Acceptance and open-mindedness were also important Islamic values in the Islamic civilization’s achievements during the Golden Age of Islam. The Islamic civilization was known for its tolerance of diversity and integration of various cultures. This facilitated the exchange of ideas and the creation of new innovations. Muslim scholars have also made significant contributions to mathematics. They made significant advances in the study of geometry and developed algebra and trigonometry. Al-Khwarizmi, the father of algebra, was a famous mathematician of the Islamic Golden Age. The etymology of the great word “algorithm” can be traced directly to Al-Khwarizmi. This is one of the major achievements that will serve as the foundation for future mathematical developments. Ibn al-Haytham, a famous physicist who conducted numerous optics experiments, was a great source for future developments. Al-Najjar ibn Yusuf ibn Maar was a mathematician and interpreter best known for his translations of Euclid’s works. Thbit ibn Qurra was a mathematician, astronomer, and interpreter who revolutionized the Ptolemaic framework and is regarded as the founding father of statics.

Muslim scholars made significant contributions to our understanding of the universe in the fields of astronomy. They created new instruments for stargazing and conducted detailed observations of celestial bodies. Astronomers such as Al-Farghani and Al-Battani had an influence on the growth of modern astronomy. Al-Biruni wrote about his discoveries about light, claiming that its velocity must be enormous when compared to the speed of sound. Medicine advanced significantly during Islam’s Golden Age. Muslim surgeons pioneered new surgical techniques and made significant advances in anatomy research. Physicians such as Al-Razi and Ibn Sina‘s works contributed to the growth of modern medicine. In addition to scientific and intellectual advancements, the Golden Age of Islam saw great cultural and artistic flourishing. Muslim artists and architects created new artistic and architectural styles that were both beautiful and functional. Construction of the Great Mosque of Cordoba began in 785, marking the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa.

To sum up, the Golden Age of Islam was a time of great achievement and progress in the Islamic world. These achievements were made possible by Islamic values such as the pursuit of knowledge, tolerance, and openness. These values and achievements of the Islamic civilization inspired the West, resulting in renewed interest in the study of ancient Greek texts, the development of new scientific theories, and the incorporation of Islamic art and architecture into Western culture. Muslim scholars contributed significantly to fields such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, the arts, and literature. Their work laid the groundwork for many of the scientific and intellectual breakthroughs that we now take for granted. The Golden Age of Islam demonstrated the importance of knowledge and intellectual curiosity in shaping the course of history. The Golden Age of Islam serves as a reminder of the importance of knowledge and values such as tolerance and openness in shaping the history that follows.

Credits: Students of History

Hiba Shaikh Ansari is a student pursuing English Hons. from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

In Joyland, Gender is the Universal Dreambreaker


Why did Saim Sadiq name his Oscar-shortlisted film ‘Joyland’? Joyland is one of Pakistan’s major amusement parks located in Lahore. The film has a scene in which two sister-in-laws go to Joyland (the amusement park) and take on a ferris wheel ride. The jethani clings to her devrani’s shoulder and screams her lungs out, “Ya allah mere saare gunah maaf karde.” Maybe Joyland is the place where you sin. Maybe it is a sin to consume or experience joy. Joyland is about these joyful sins that keep human beings and their desires in check.

Joyland is the story of these very desires that desire to flourish amongst the struggling sections of Lahore. Haider is a wimpy, jobless man whose ambitious wife (Mumtaz) finds it easier than him to butcher a goat. The adjectives here are the hamartia in Joyland. Haider gets a job as a dancer in a theatre group and falls for a transgender woman (Biba) who is fighting really hard to be taken seriously despite her marginalized identity. But what really makes Joyland worthy of all the hype and acclaim that it got is the fact that it is not only about Haider and Mumtaz and Biba. It is also about Nucchi, the wife of Haider’s older brother, his dad and the middle aged woman who resides in the neighbourhood mohalla. Gender connects all of them; it is the universal dreambreaker. Haider helps Nucchi in the household chores, so when he gets a job, he is replaced by Mumtaz even if it means her having to let go of her dearly adored job as a rising makeup artist. Mumtaz says, “Main akele nau logon ka khana aur chaar bacche kaise sambhalu.” When Nucchi cautions Mumtaz about Haider’s proximity to Biba, the former says, “Yeh ladki nahin hai.” What does it mean to be a female? Irritated by Nucchi’s daughters bickering her about fireflies, Mumtaz says, “Yeh sheher hai. Yahan jugnu nahin hote.” In Pakistan’s second biggest city, fireflies burn in their own fire.

Joyland had to go through a lot to release in Pakistan. One of Jamaat-e-Islami’s senators, Senator Mushtaq Ahmed Khan, accused the film of being “against Pakistani values”. He said “Glamourising transgenders in Pakistan, as well as their love affairs, is a direct attack on our beliefs.” In a country where thousands of young boys are exploited through baccha baazi, the lawmakers are more concerned about a film that has a bunch of adults wanting to break out of the narrow lanes of the mohallas they live in. Despite getting rave reviews and winning both the Queer Palm and Un Certain Regard Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival, Joyland remains unreleased in Pakistan’s Punjab.

There is a sad, sad phenomenon that plagues film industries throughout the world. It is trans characters being played by cis actors. Popular examples include Chandigarh Kare Aashiqui (a cis woman plays a trans woman) and Super Deluxe (a cis man playing a trans woman). Why are actors from one of the world’s most marginalized communities not given the chance to play characters sourced from their trauma? Joyland joins the heartbreakingly short list of films and shows that debunk this phenomenon. HBO’s ‘Euphoria‘ is one of them.

Joyland has some of Pakistan’s best actors from veterans like Saina Saeed as the matriarch who never was and Salman Peerzaada as a patriarch who must make sure he abides by the rules that he has set for his sons and their wives. Sarwat Gilani is perfect as arguably the only person who sees the constant suffocation that Mumtaz suffers from. Despite her patriarchal conditioning, her empathy and sisterhood for Mumtaz is both hopeful and refreshing. Rasti Farooq as Mumtaz is mercurial as the woman who refuses to accept her prejudiced circumstances. I was almost looking for hints of homoeroticism between Mumtaz and Nucchi. Alina Khan as Biba is pathbreaking as a trans woman trying her level best to fight the gruesome gender dysphoria and transphobia that have been normalized beyond repair. In a powerful scene, she refuses to leave her seat in the female coach of the metro. What is there to not like about a woman who knows that her fight is bigger than the binaries of the world? Despite these remarkable characters, it is Haider who appeared to me like the biggest lead of them all. Ali Junejo’s portrayal of a man who finds himself falling for a woman whose identity he does not really understand is commending. ‘Film Companion’s’ Rahul Desai in his review of Joyland made a very particular observation about how Mumtaz struggles to rise above the exoticity of the tragedy that Haider and Biba are. I resonated a lot with his opinion.

Shamefully, Joyland narrowly missed out on the final Oscar nominations for Best International Film. It released in Indian Cinemas on March 10.

Sarthak Parashar is a student persuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Syed Ilham Jafri

‘In saffron hued CinemaScope’


Using celluloid to manipulate public consciousness is not a novel concept. Propaganda on film has existed as long as film itself. During the World War II era, the leaders of the third Reich commissioned Leni Riefenstahl with producing moving picture propaganda in service of Nazism. ‘Triumph of the Will’ and ‘Olympia’ are still to this day, while still depicting the leaders of fascism basking in glory, lauded as artistic enterprises and for their innovations in technicalities. On the other side of the battle, the allied forces, rallying behind the US, have an even longer and deeper history of depicting propaganda on camera.

W G Griffith’s ‘Birth of a Nation’ (1915)—a three-hour epic, full of eye-popping editing and avant-garde photography—ran parallel to the film’s unapologetic plea for white supremacy, and its nostalgia about an antebellum South. The very first Academy Award for Best Picture winner, 1927’s ‘Wings’, was created with the American army’s support. In recent decades, the filmmaking industry dovetailing with the military has led to the creation of an entire military-entertainment industrial complex.

Credits: Hulton Archive

So we learn that propaganda is entrenched in entertainment. And thus we turn the looking glass back inward into domestic territory. Bollywood lacks that same sort of avant-garde prestige that is awarded to these industries making up in quantity over what it lacks in formal experimentation. The most common output from the industry has been fun rom-coms and the other being moralistic tales about culture, tradition and family. But lately, there has been an ostentatious change in output with the industry pumping out military propaganda and tales of military accomplishments, and such in numbers never before seen. Though nothing novel, I suppose there’s something much more nefarious in adulterating ‘Masala Flicks’ with these saffron ideologies. Any foray into serious academic film study will stress upon the chasm between film and movies. Film is art; movies are for the public. Bollywood is movies, talkies and flicks; not worthy of statuary. And it is probably one of the reasons why the pernicious coming to the surface politics of these films tend to not bother audiences when they do break through the domestic barrier. With the recent success of ‘RRR’, most foreign audiences have been dismissive of the concerns raised by natives with respect to the treatment of lower caste people and Adivasi’s in the film. When discussing the fascist elements emerging in this New Pan-Indian film scene, you’re mostly met with incredulous looks.

Credits: TOI

One might argue ‘movies’ have an even more important place in understanding the semiotics of the images we consume. ‘Movies’ reaffirm the status quo-planting seeds that cops, the military, and subservience to the pre-existing system are all good at the end of day and that we need these structures to exist. Since BJP coming to power in the early 2010s, there’s been a discernible shift in expressing ideologies that are permissible and that are to be believed in. That there exists salvation in it and your favourite silver screen actor doused in tainted mythologism reaffirms it to you. Nationalism, Hindu honour, legendary Hindu icons, Hindu suffering in the past and contemporary military strength have all become popular subjects for filmmakers in Bollywood. Simultaneously, there has been a subtle and increasingly not-so-subtle othering of the Muslim community through a rhetoric that emphasises the brutality of Islamic invaders and their zeal for forcibly converting the native population.

Vivek Agnihotri’s Hindi film ‘The Kashmir Files’ was released in theatres on March 11. The only well-known actor in the lead cast of the film is Anupam Kher, but it became a massive hit, earning Rs 100 crore in just eight days. The film is a fictional story inspired by real events surrounding the forced exodus of Kashmiri Pandits from their homeland in the late ‘80s and early ‘90s. While several Kashmiri Pandits have applauded the film for portraying their real life trauma, others from the community have distanced themselves from its factual inaccuracies and palpable anti-Muslim propaganda. Earlier this year Siddharth Malhotra was announced in yet another fictionalization of military exploits in the India-Pakistan border, the metaphorical primordial soup out of which every homunculus of Indian fundamentalism emerges. Military engagements in this area are especially loved by Bollywood; a privilege hardly granted to skirmishes between China or the failed peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka undertaken in the 90s, because unequivocal victory is guaranteed.

Credits: FirstPost

More than a representation of brewing public sentiment, these movies are actively aiding the nationalistic project undertaking by the concumbent government furthering the nationalist agenda purported by the BJP government.

Sumaiya Shakil is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Ambrisha Zubeen



Mumbai’s Color Positive Foundation hosted its first pride parade on 28th January. Interestingly, an event representing one of the most diversely oppressed communities has been getting a lot of flak for its deliberate avoidance of politics. Some of the guidelines that the organizers have issued include a prohibition against political placards and the criticism of the Indian majoritarian Right-wing. Savio Mascarenhas, the founder of the foundation has stated, “What we said is, if you want to talk about politics, talk about the politics related to the LGBTQ+ community. Because our rights matter and we need to fight to get us legal rights.” His ambiguous and diplomatic words find a bit more clarity in “For example, If I can’t marry, I can’t talk about laws related to alimony. So, discuss politics around the right to marry.” In a few sentences, he ignored every queer person in a heterosexual marriage arrangement. He forgot how being queer has always been a tussle with the authoritarian state.

Credits: Wikitionary

A simple google search defines pride as “the feeling of pleasure that you have when you or people who are close to you do something good or own something good” or “the respect that you have for yourself“. Why do people from the LGBTQ+ community need to organize and participate in pride parades is one of the most frequently asked questions by people who do not belong to the community. What is it about not being straight that one needs to feel proud of? Things have gone as far as there being instances of straight prides as a counter statement and emergence of terminology like super straight (the official exclusion of trans people from dating spheres as if they did not already face deep-rooted prejudice and segregation). The history of pride is an iconic one. It began as a protest against a police raid on a gay bar called the Stonewall Inn which further inspired the now legendary Stonewall Uprising. The word uprising has now been substituted by riots as if queer people in the early 70s held enough power and resources and liberty to instigate something as one-sided as riots. TERFs (trans exclusionary radical feminists) and SWERFs (Sex Worker Exclusionary Radical Feminists) have also forgotten how the pioneers of the Stonewall Uprising (Marsha P. Johnson and Sylvia Rivera) were drag queens of color who even had to resort to sex work out of helplessness. Their brand of politics, with their transphobia and prudity forgets how much cisgendered lesbians owe to the likes of Johnson and Rivera.

Meanwhile, on 8th of January, queers and allies of the capital battled the harsh Delhi cold and blinding smog that symbolize the struggles they go through. Xaz told me about their experiences at the Delhi Pride, “Pride for me was pretty overwhelming given it was the largest it has ever been. It felt very rushed but happy. I bumped into people I knew. It was really great getting to know the fact that so many queer people exist. They (the organizers) did have a ‘pride should not be political’ stance but that didn’t stop people from saying political slogans which was amazing. The end was honestly very aggravating though, as soon as the time went up, the police started to blow their whistle, forcing people to evacuate immediately through small exits and might have caused a stampede.” Pride for them was both euphoric and claustrophobic. Another participant felt the lack of Dalit representation at the event. Pride for them seemed like an upper-caste affair. There was a poster that used religious symbols to ask for the legalization of same-sex marriage. Do queer people need to be assimilated with their oppressors to be socially accepted? Perhaps nobody sums up the gravitas of pride better than the Instagram user that goes by the handle @kaalimirch_. Very poetically, they wrote, “If only people understood that going back home from pride is more political than marching those two kilometers. It is the work of returning from your queerness to a world that is still, largely, built to keep you out. You meet your shame again on the streets, in the metro, at the back of an auto. You are no longer graceful-the passing gaze of strangers and the occasional teasing on the road tells you that your saree looks wrong on your body. I march to remember what is left of us when pride is over.” Pride for them is an imperfect utopia that works as an escape twice a year.

Pride is Rajkumar Rao as a police inspector (Shardul) putting on a rainbow-feathered mask as his way of participating in an event that his institutional profession is supposed to be an archenemy and suppressor of. Pride is also him having to marry a lesbian woman in order to be eligible to adopt a child for the law that he protects is discriminatory. Pride might as well just be as subjective as its literal meaning and as diverse as its participants.

Sarthak Parashar is a student pursuing English Hons. from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Rutba Manzoor

Women’s Writing Throughout the Feminist Waves of History


It’s not news that throughout history women have been oppressed and repressed by the patriarchal society that favours men. From getting denied their share of education and their right to freedom to being forced into marriage, women travelled a long way to get to the position where they stand today. Among all the years of struggles and fights, “feminism” took its birth in a new form. Revolution begins in the minds of writers, and as we look back, we see how women’s writing has evolved and sparkled over the feminist waves that are marked as one of the greatest movements the world will remember.

For most of history, anonymous was a woman.”

— Virginia Woolf

Over centuries, writing has emerged as an effective tool to give shape to one’s thoughts and voice about social or societal change. Women’s literature has proven shelter to issues in such a context without being an exception. Since the first wave of feminism, women have been putting pen to paper to bring to the fore the challenges and prejudices experienced by females. Even before the feminist movement, women writers worked hard at presenting the dark side of patriarchal society but were ignored for their inferior position. They wrote under pseudonyms to avoid being criticised for practicing the profession of writing, which was considered “masculine,” and therefore we see a lot of unknown written works by female writers.

Credits: History of Feminism

Mary Wollstonecraft’s “A Vindication on the Rights of Women” (1792) is a monumental work that paved the way for the women after her to not only publish their works but to also engage themselves in critical discourses related to women’s literature. Mary laid emphasis on the equality of women in the domain of education and challenged the notion that women exist only to please men in her book. The first wave of feminism argued for equal opportunities in domains that were dominated by men because of the gender roles assigned by society to men and women. The vision of Mary Wollstonecraft was later concretized by Virginia Woolf, an important modernist 20th century writer, in her seminal text “A Room of One’s Own” (1929). Considered Woolf’s master work, it is a long form of essay told through a fictionalized narrator that presents the argument of the necessity of both metaphorical and literal “room” for women’s literature within the literary tradition.

Credits: ThoughtCo

The second wave of feminism from the 1940s to the 1980s challenged the essentialist assumptions and acceptance of the division between gender and sex as defined by society. It sparked a rejuvenation of the issue raised about the place of women in the workforce. Presses published the lost and ignored works by women; colleges instilled the courses teaching on women’s literature and history. Simone de Beauvoir was an active participant of the second movement, and her book “The Second Sex” (1949) is credited to have paved the path of modernist feminism. Beauvoir wrote fearlessly; her writings were ahead of time, making strong points regarding the fight for the feminist cause. Every feminist might have come across this famous saying of hers: “One is not born; rather, one becomes a woman.”

Credits: Tumblr

The third wave of feminism, from the 1990s through 2000, focused more on the performative aspect of sexuality or gender. Writers like Toni Morrison, Adrienne Rich, Margaret Atwood, and Alice Walker were at the forefront. All these resulted in the commonality among women nowadays of living as singles and leading an independent life, but society still puts her under a great deal of pressure. For this reason, feminist criticism became an important subject in modern literature, which eventually took the shape of a completely new genre: “chick lit.” This genre tackles the feminist issue and is targeted towards contemporary women. It became popular in the late nineties, when “equal opportunity” and “feminism” were not popular ideologies in society. Helen Fielding is regarded as the pioneer of this modern form of women’s fiction, or original chick-lit. Fielding’s “Bridget Jones’s Diary” is a great example of a chick-lit novel that presents a clear picture of society and its implications in the life of a woman, especially single women. At the present time, Chimamanda Ngozi, one of the greatest role models of 21st century feminists, exemplifies honesty and bravery in the face of change. All in all, these writers emerged as powerful forces as they put forward the need for acknowledgement and activism for the growth and benefits of women as well as the literary tradition as a whole.

Sania Parween is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

The Beauty of Breaking Bad


Breaking Bad is a show that will live on for ages. With an entirely new concept, it ignored the usual clichés for crime shows, created a new path for itself, and acquired cult status. It ticks off the usual boxes for any good TV series: acting, background music, writing, pacing, and entertainment, but perhaps more than that, Breaking Bad is a show that has emotional depth. It raises many questions for its audience and paints a brutally honest picture of our society. It is a metaphor for the life we live, full of morally grey choices that have real consequences.

Breaking Bad’s protagonist is Walter White, a high school chemistry teacher who has lung cancer, a son with cerebral palsy, and an unplanned pregnancy. He doesn’t earn much, doesn’t like his jobs, and is regretful over his decision to leave Gray Matter. The audience empathizes with his midlife crisis.

Credits: Adam Villacin

‘Breaking Bad’ is slang for ‘rebelling against society’, ‘to go rogue’ or ‘wreak havoc and destruction.’ Walt’s slow descent into chaos is best described by this term. He went from being the guy who almost quit the meth trade after being traumatized by Krazy-8’s death to the guy who unhesitatingly poisons Brock to manipulate Jesse. That is the most stunning character development an anti-hero can have.

Tricking the Viewers

The beauty of Breaking Bad lies in the fact that it questions the moral allegiance of its audience. One cannot help but sympathize with Walt when he has lethal cancer, but why do we cheer on for Heisenberg even after the cancer is in remission and secretly want him to succeed no matter what it takes? Does the audience really believe that Walt is doing all this for his family and not because he likes the feeling of power that comes with it? Why does the audience excuse his morally bad actions?

Supporting Walter White does not mean that one is a psychopath. Most of us won’t kill people, blow up nursing homes, or poison children. If we would not do these things ourselves in real life, then why are we supporting them when Walt does them? The reason for this is that an anti-hero’s character is an outlet for the feelings that we all secretly harbor. Walt’s character is relatable; he has been screwed by life too many times, but now he finally gets his revenge. We can detach from real life and support a fictitious character who can break the rules and get away with it.

Credits: Breaking Bad

It is fascinating to watch a person go against the norms of society. We know we cannot unleash the Heisenberg inside us, so it feels really good to see someone else do it. We love the thrill we get when we identify with Walt, even if it’s temporary. This gives rise to the dilemma in Vince Gilligan’s moral universe: an audience with a moral compass that would not do the things that Walt does and yet cheers him on.

Limits of Moral Nihilism

A particular focus of Breaking Bad is to emphasize moral ambiguity. No character in the show can be termed 100% good or bad, just like in real life. Although not explicitly mentioned, Walt is a moral nihilist. Moral nihilism is a philosophy that says that morality is meaningless. It says that no action is morally good or bad, and the concept of good or bad exists only in our minds.

Walt internalizes this principle of moral nihilism early on. The threat of impending death diluted the moral principles he had, and all his actions henceforth are proof that he does not believe that there is any such thing as morality. He lets Jane die, bombs a nursing home, poisons Brock, makes a false confession tape, leaves Jesse with the Neo-Nazis, manipulates everyone around him, and gets Gale killed. He does not feel any remorse about the fact that his actions have consequences. He does not fire Todd for killing a child and does not care that letting Jane die caused a midair collision.

Credits: Breaking Bad

Walt’s “It is what it is” approach that prioritizes efficiency and survival over everything else allowed him to be the biggest drug lord in the Southwest, but there is a hidden question here: Was it really all worth it? Was Walt’s moral nihilism beneficial for him? As Walt admitted in El Camino, in a flashback, Jesse didn’t have to wait his whole life to do something special. This is the underlying motivation for Walt’s actions. All his life, playing by the rules and being good hasn’t gotten him anywhere. He does what he does to gain respect from his peers, heal his wounded pride, and exercise control.

But there is an inherent contradiction in Walt’s moral nihilism. He may not believe that morality exists, but everyone around him does. The DEA is after him, and Flynn, Marie, or Skyler won’t ever forgive him for the havoc he caused in their lives. This is the problem with using moral nihilism to justify your psychopathic behaviour because a) it does not end well for you, and b) it does not end well for your loved ones. Even if you believe that killing people is not bad, others around you still have a moral fabric. Was the temporary rush of pleasure that Walt felt when he became Heisenberg worth getting hated by his own son, destroying his family, and leaving Holly without a father? Walt’s moral nihilism leads him to believe that he will not face consequences for his actions, but in the end, it all falls apart.

Gunjit Verma is a student pursuing Chemistry Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

The Fall of Constantinople: A new era of Italy Renaissance


The Byzantine Empire had a significant impact on the history and culture of Europe. By the fifteenth century, it was in terminal decline. The Empire, which had lasted for nearly a thousand years, effectively came to an end when its capital was captured by the Ottoman Turkish army in 1453. At this time, the various Italian city-states experienced a period of cultural flourishing known as the Renaissance. Fleeing Greek scholars had a significant impact on the Renaissance’s direction and trajectory. It prompted Greek education to become more widely accessible, which altered Italy’s scholarly climate. This resulted in a deeper understanding of the Ancient Greek language as well as mythology and scientific knowledge.

Credits: Lestertair

Italy and Byzantium had a prolonged and complicated history. Sicily and a large portion of Southern Italy were under the control of Byzantium. Therefore, Italian art and architecture have been greatly influenced by Byzantine culture. By 1453, the Byzantine Empire had divided up into three empires, which were just small statelets. One of them was Constantinople. The city was only a pale replica of its former splendor. By the 1450s, the Ottoman Empire had spread across Europe and was a powerful military state. The Ottomans had previously besieged Constantinople but were unable to breach its apparently impenetrable fortifications. Sultan Mehmet I was determined to conquer the city because it was a Christian territory in his empire, and he was concerned that it might be used as a base for an invasion. Despite the city’s perceived weakness, it was thought to be the best-defended city in all of Europe. Sultan Mehmet gathered a huge army of 60,000 men and massive cannons. The Byzantine Emperor was killed during the battle. By breaching the walls with their powerful cannons, the Ottomans swarmed into Constantinople. They abstained from killing commoners and nobles, preferring to hold them for ransom to return to their home states. After the conquest, Mehmet ensured a multicultural seat of power for a multicultural empire by repopulating the city with residents of various backgrounds and faiths and moving his capital from Edirne to Constantinople.

For Europe, the fall of Constantinople marked the end of an era. The Byzantine- fighting Italians succeeded in escaping the siege and bringing many Constantinople residents with them to Italy. Thousands of refugees fled to Italy and the rest of Europe after Constantinople and the remaining Byzantine territories fell. Grammarians, humanists, poets, writers, printers, lecturers, musicians, astronomers, architects, scribes, philosophers, scientists, politicians, and theologians were among the refugees. Manuscripts from the destroyed libraries of Constantinople and other Byzantine cities were also brought with them.

Credite: Materia Islamica

The study of rhetoric has been a focus of Italian humanists. They had little interest in hypothetical metaphysical scenarios. The first publication of Plato’s complete works, however, was to change this. The Athenian philosopher’s dialogues from the fifth century, brought in by the refugees, changed the minds of many humanists. A Neo-Platonist school of philosophy emerged in Florence as a result of Plato’s writings. Plato’s ideas were introduced, which caused a shift in emphasis from ethical to metaphysical speculations. Many claim that this changed people’s perceptions of the Greek and his ideas, and that it also influenced how the humanists thought about virtue and excellence. Many Italian thinkers endorsed the Aristotelian comprehension of virtue. They discovered that Aristotle placed a strong emphasis on the importance of empirical research and study, and that experimentation was required to determine the truth. Many Italian scholars were influenced by the Aristotelian emphasis on practical knowledge (praxis) to place more emphasis on observation and experimentation, which aided in the development of science in Italy.

For Italy, the fall of the Byzantine Empire was both a blessing and a curse. The Ottoman threat to Italy increased with the fall of the capital of the Byzantine world. The Italian states lived in the Ottomans’ shadow for a number of decades after Constantinople was taken. For Venice and Genoa, the fall of the Byzantine Empire was catastrophic. Both city-states declined as a result of lost trade and frequent Turkish attacks. On the contrary, a huge number of refugees from Constantinople sought refuge in the various Italian city-states, including many scholars. They brought with them the knowledge of the Classics of Antiquity and priceless manuscripts that aided in the understanding of philosophers and other authors, which ultimately led to the most infamous period of the Renaissance.

Hiba Shaikh Ansari is a student pursuing English Hons. from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

What is even the point of UGC?


The University Grants Commission has been a big player in higher education in India since 1956. It was set up with the aim to “report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions”. With whatever power it had, its track record has been contrary to its goals and it has fueled the rot in higher education in India. The impractical decisions and half baked policy proposals are a cruel joke for the struggling students and teachers and prove that the UGC is interested in rhetoric rather than serious deliberations.

No one can deny the grim state of education in India right now. We are wasting the opportunity to build our youth into a resourceful workforce of the future. The numerous universities and colleges are producing jobless graduates who are ill prepared to function in a competitive and technology driven world. Due to decades of turning a blind eye towards the ineffectual university system, we are nearing the point of no return. Part of the blame for this can be assigned to the University Grants Commission which has ignored, misidentified and aggravated the problems in our higher education system. As a regulatory body under the Ministry of Education, its core function is to coordinate, determine and maintain standards of higher education in India.

Credits: IndiaTV

It has been on the chopping block for the past decade with the government accepting its shortcomings and recognizing the need to have a new regulator. The powers of the UGC has been slowly taken away and diluted and it has been reduced to a mere white elephant. Despite this, the UGC, in its dying days, has been adamant to wreak havoc on the university system in India. Pushing for more online courses, a four year degree and now the setting of campuses of foreign universities in India are some of few ill thought policy proposals which show that the people who affect our lives do not have a clue of what they are doing.

Under the UGC, numbers of universities and enrolled students have grown exponentially but the standards of education have remained stagnant or declined. It has been reduced to a mere body to give grants and funds instead of pushing for meaningful reforms and excellence in education. A government panel even said that the “UGC staff is unhappy as only few find favour and are delegated with powers to perform in important areas while many of them are left out with hardly much to contribute…. is said that they are pushed around through an element of fear and threat”. The report further pointed out that the “working structure of UGC is so ad-hoc that many do not know how many bureaus representing various disciplines and activities are currently existing……. regional offices of UGC and even Consortium of Educational Communication (CEC) have failed to deliver and are a waste of good money and manpower”.

Perhaps, the UGC was doomed from the start because the complete control that the UGC and government exercise over a university is not conducive towards a holistic educational environment. No university can independently start its own degree course or recruit faculty or take its decision without interference from the state/central governments and the UGC. Politics takes priority over research and academic productivity, innovation, learning. Too much interference has led to subpar education in terms of quality and quantity.

The UGC has overseen the abysmal system of fellowships and scholarships which does great disservice to underprivileged students. Furthermore, the UGC is plagued by sycophancy and nepotism at the top, ensuring that those who have the decision making powers do not have students and professors’ best interests at heart and instead take orders from their bosses. It has engaged in petty fights with IITs and IIMs over the years and let smaller universities off the hook who are giving useless degrees.

Economic powers were taken away from UGC and HEFA was set up which would give loans to universities for their required funds (something that will definitely not lead to an increase in tuition fees). The to replace the UGC in 2018. Higher Education Commission of India Clever rhetoric has been was proposed used to sell this as a revolutionary makeover of the education system in India but it is nothing more than old wine in a new bottle. The bill lacks a basic understanding of why UGC failed and does not desire for radical innovation.

It seems that UGC is working on the principle that ‘something must happen’ even if that something is detrimental to students. from the minds at UGC and lengthy jargon New and flashy policy propos and slogans are als emerge used to justify them. Terms like holistic, world class, ranking are used liberally to convince a person that something great is happening even though it is not.

Although to be fair, this problem cannot be solved by just fixing UGC. The UGC is not the cause of the problem but its facilitator. The real problem lies with our messed up priorities when it comes to the education in India. The deep rooted structural problems in our education system have no easy solutions but we have to first accept them. Instead what we do is, make a bad situation even worse.

Gunjit Verma is a student pursuing B.Sc. Chemistry from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Rutba Manzoor

Taking the Hijab Off – Misrepresentation Through Compelling Visuals


Representation is how societal aspects such as race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality and social issues are presented, according to the BBC. In terms of representation, Muslim have been thoroughly underrepresented and misrepresented. One of the recent tropes is that of taking off a hijab, a catharsis of sorts for the character. Hijab already has enough stigma attached to it. Women who choose to wear one are said to have been forced or brainwashed. This trope, making its appearance frequently, underplays the choice and narrative of the women who choose to wear the hijab, in the name of representation.

In September 2022, Bisleri launched their ‘Limonata’ drink with a campaign called “Let loose”. The advertisement shows a group of men playing football on a hill, and the ball is accidentally thrown towards a group of girls sitting nearby, clad in the traditional pheran and a headscarf. One of the girls decides to stand up and showcase her excellent footwork with the ball while the boys try and fail to keep up with her. Towards the end of what would have been a harmless advertisement otherwise, the girl takes off her headscarf, while the background track resonates the lines, “Just let loose”.

A still from the ad.
A still from the ad.

To think from an outsider’s perspective, this advertisement is nothing out of the ordinary. But, this kind of a depiction has a different effect for Muslim women who choose to wear hijab, even if it’s not unusual to come across. Most of the representations of Muslim characters wearing hijab set up the story for them to take out and toss their hijab later on. It’s inevitable. You already know what’s going to follow when you see a hijabi Muslim character on-screen. It [taking off hijab] magically takes away the problems that they’re shown to be facing throughout.

The point is, those girls in the campaign may not even be representing Muslims, but the recurrence of women removing their headscarf in the mainstream media is far too much for it to just be a happy coincidence, or an aesthetic addition. Hijab has been portrayed as a tool of oppression, and taking it off as freeing. If a piece of clothing justifies the oppression of women, and its removal is the solution, then how does one justify the subjugation and oppression still rampant against women of other communities, and basically women in general?

In Minhal Baig’s film Hala (2019), Hala, a Pakistani American, hijabi Muslim is shown to be struggling with her values and desires. The film was a matter of debate when many Muslim women took to social media to discuss its representation and ending, where Hala also removes her hijab. Nowhere in the film is it hinted that she has been struggling with it. Removing the veil is often depicted as a solution, or the means to one. With the few token representations that Muslims get in mainstream media, it seems that most of them are aimed at, or end up spreading Anti-Muslim sentiments.

Credits: Apple

Muslim characters are churned out in bulk through the old generalizing, stereotyping machine, with each new one dimensional character resembling the others already in line. Whether it is Hollywood, or Bollywood, Muslim men are almost always either terrorists or oppressive patriarchs; or both. The women are silent and suppressed, or struggling for freedom. Diversity is non-existent. There is hardly ever a portrayal on-screen which represents, even to a small amount, the dynamics of a regular Muslim family or society.

Another film that comes to mind is Mani Ratnam’s Bombay (1995), a film that shows an inter-religious marriage, in the backdrop of the Bombay communal riots. Shaila Banu and Shekhar are both planning to elope, away from their intolerant families that won’t accept their love. While reaching Shekhar who is waiting for her near the sea, Shaila’s burqa gets entangled while she is approaching Shekhar; and she leaves it behind. Film critic Anupama Chopra, in a review for her platform Film Companion wrote, “ As Shaila runs to Shekhar, her burkha gets entangled. She removes it and goes to him, almost as if she is freeing herself from the shackles of her family, society and religion”. There are two points worth noting here – one: why doesn’t Shekhar, a Hindu man, need to break free from these shackles? Second, Shaila’s burqa – her veil is drawn in likeness to the shackles of her family, society and religion. These heavy juxtapositions play with the psyche of people. Whether subtle or apparent, these tropes work at instilling and ingraining a suspicion and to a greater level, hatred of Muslims and their way of life.

With these representations, women who choose to wear the hijab, by choice, to practice their religion and to exert their freedom are ignored and their agency disregarded. There is no denying that a lot of women are forced to wear the hijab, and denied their agency as well. But this narrative, of “the oppressed Muslim woman” is being overdone deliberately. It robs the Muslim representation of the nuance it can otherwise present on screen.

Credits: ANI

Taking control of the narrative, and bringing forward their own stories is important for Muslims. There have been films, mostly independent, created by Muslims, that explore and bring out the diversity, and the struggles of Muslims in a much kinder and realistic way. In the mainstream however, the representation feels almost satirical at this point. It gives away an impression that the creators have not had proper interactions with Muslims, or lack the creativity to move forward from redundant and dehumanizing stereotypes that were created decades ago.

Mukaram Shakeel is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Ambrisha Zubeen

Sons and Lovers: Industrial Revolution through the lens of Literature


Lawrence’s ‘Sons and Lovers’, though excessively called out for being obscene and even pornographic in its early days, is now believed to be one of the greatest novels of the twentieth century. Apart from themes of familial dynamics, autobiographical elements, and psychoanalysis, the novel dwells on a less discussed yet crucial theme: Industrialisation. In various instances, the novel presents a critique of the aftermath of the Industrial Revolution.

Credits: Medium

Lawrence had been an advocate for the importance of nature in human life. His desire to spend a life away from materialistic chaos inspired him to create a community called ‘Rananim‘. He believed that humans are an extension of nature and it brings them comfort and solace. In the novel as well, Mrs. Morel is shown to find solace in the moonlight when thrown out of her house.

Being the son of a coal miner and therefore facing the cruelties of the revolution first hand, Lawrence believed that the course had been harmful both to nature and its extensions. The revolution deemed mechanical development to be superior to human life. The value of beings became directly proportional to the need they cater to. The revolution brought a rise in capitalism and changed social arrangements. It gave birth to rapid classist outcomes.

In the novel, the characters have been directly or indirectly affected by the course of action. Mr. Morel is shown to be a victim of the unhealthy work ethic that emerged due to the revolution. The desire for development gave rise to a large number of workers working in dangerous environments. The revolution gave birth to greed for extracting resources, which brought up the need for mining and let the labourers work in unhealthy conditions. Humans seem to be equivalent to objects or even less than machines. Mr. Morel worked in similar conditions in a coal mine. He, along with other workers, was degraded because he belonged to the lower section of society. He is shown to be trapped in the clutches of a capitalistic society. He, along with his family, dwells in buttons.

Due to the endless working hours, he ends up losing his emotional elements. He is struck with chronic poverty and has no time to converse with his wife or children. The dull, gloomy coal pits have seemed to erase the lustre of emotional needs from his heart. This results in his torn marriage life. His wife, Mrs. Morel, is also a victim of the system. She belonged to “Hell Row,” where the upper class dwells. Though she marries a coal miner out of love, her marriage life stays in jeopardy due to the unseen issues created by the class divide. Mrs. Morel is shown to be a culturally affiliated woman, which is common for women in the upper class. Mr. Morel, a lower-class guy struck with chronic poverty, is unable to provide her with the intellectual companionship she desires. The shift in class makes her life suffer in the dark, gloomy localities adjoining the grey coal mines.

The dysfunctional family dynamic, later on, puts enormous pressure on the sons of the family to provide Mrs. Morel with her desired emotional and financial needs. This shows the tragic reality of lower-class children, who would spend their lives working tirelessly to shift from one class to another. William, the elder son of the Morels, dies in the city due to overworking. The younger son, Paul, spends his life untangling the threads of chaos intertwined due to the unsettling reality of his family, which has been strangling his happiness.

The novel has been an influential take on the degradation of humans at the hands of the tyrannical power of mechanical advancement. The readers get to witness the hidden conflicts that emerged as an outcome of the industrial revolution, which shook the pillars of familial bonds as well. It has managed to shed light on serious subjects including the alienation and objectification of humans, the messing up of moral values, the belittling of human worth, and the equalisation of lives with assets. The novel has definitely been an impactful effort in creating awareness about the tragedies that await a society where money becomes God.

Ashna Arif is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Ambrisha Zubeen

Hockey 2023: Revival of the Indian Sporting Legacy


It was 1975, the last time India lifted the Hockey World Cup Trophy. Since then, it has become a wait of almost half a century to feel that energy again and a dream living in the hearts of the true fans. The good news is that the lost game is finally back on the fields of the country that had once seen immense height globally through it! When India was announced as the host country for the “2023 Men’s FIH Hockey World Cup,” the deep-rooted dream bloomed again, and Naveen Patnaik, Odisha’s CM, is no less to be credited for this beautiful revival.

Credits: The Hindu

Hockey, one of the oldest modern games to exist, was first introduced in India during British Rule in the 1850s. Gradually, the game captured the attention of the younger generation, which ultimately led to its popularity in the country, having large fields and open spaces to be played on. With the formation of the International Hockey Federation (FIH) in 1924, came the permanence of hockey to be added in the Olympics. The Indian hockey team participated and grabbed the gold medal in the very first game of the 1928 Olympics. It was then, the beginning of a golden era. The Indian team dominated the field of world hockey with the rise of Dhyan Chand, one of the greatest hockey players the world has ever witnessed. His legacy continued, and India went on to win eight gold medals, a record till date.

After the 1970s, India’s domination seemed to be in danger and hardly managed to strike a gold in 1975. It was a decline caused by both external and internal factors- the change from grass to astroturf (artificial grass) was one India couldn’t adapt with the changing times. Despite this, the men’s team, taking advantage of the depleted field, won the eighth Olympic gold at the 1980 Moscow Games.

Meanwhile, the women’s team had also emerged and was doing quite well. However, these were the final years of the golden period, and after that, everything became stagnant. Players dropped, coaches were changed, and India struggled to regain its position at the global level. It was an arduous period for both men and women’s team as they felt shortage to make it to the semi-finals of the international events, eventually restraining themselves to just bronzes and silvers. The scenario worsened when the men’s team failed to even qualify for the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which led to a huge setback.

Credits: OpIndia

41 years of this dormancy finally broke when the Indian men’s team entered the semi-finals at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The medal drought ended with a bronze, and the achievement was doubled by the women’s team’s historic appearance in their first semi-final match. Hockey was breathing again. Thus, revival is what people knew had crept in and would be chanted from here on.

This revival is not a sudden outcome but the result of years of groundwork by the teams, a resolute journey toward betterment, and the admirable strength offered by the pillars around them. The pillar that stood the tallest has to be Odisha’s Chief Minister, Naveen Patnaik. The CM, with his deep interest in the game, took on the sponsorship of Indian Hockey in 2018 when all the national sponsors of the team had pulled back. He rescued the national game from fading away from the sight of the countrymen. With funds, infrastructure, all the basics were developed and provided from the very root by Odisha. The state proved to be the “second home” for the players. It would not be an exaggeration to say that this initiative filled in a new life and brought the game back its glory in times like these where the crowd apparently is crazy after cricket and football.

The Government of Odisha continues to extend its full support, and now what lies ahead is the 2023 Men’s Hockey World Cup, an addition to the process of revitalisation. The 15th edition of the game has already begun as of January 13, 2023, taking place in Odisha’s Bhubaneswar and Rourkela. There is excitement surging among the hockey fans as India kicked in the enthusiasm winning the first match against Spain. The Chief Minister, who was there to witness the thrilling performance, tweeted “I am sure spectators will experience finest hockey during World Cup 2023. Let’s celebrate the spirit of hockey as Hockey comes Home” and he also congratulated the Indian team for their amazing win.

Credits: Hindustan Times

There is indeed a long way to go for the Men and Women in Blue to make this revival a historic example of belief and hard work. Looking forward to the ongoing World Cup, it doesn’t really matter at what rank India will end up because, after all, it’s a sport where one wins and one loses. What truly matters is not letting this spirit die which the CM of Odisha envisaged while putting his efforts and the Odisha Government’s attempt in bringing back hockey to the nation’s field and in its people’s hearts.

Sania Parween is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Moneera Aiman

The Jamia Review