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Creating a New Film Canon: Sight & Sound’s Greatest Films of All Time


Once every decade, film critics, directors, and other industry workers, set aside their differences to contemplate the entire film canon. It seems a little daunting, especially from the perspective of budding film enthusiasts, out of the exponential number of films to choose from and to narrow it all down to a hundred. Still, a hundred is a convenient number, and it is always fun to compare the lists from the previous decade to map out the ever-mutating form of the film and the social conditions they are a manner of.

Credits: TripAdvisor

Compared to previous years, this year’s edition is the largest ever. Sight & Sound expanded its rolls from 145 critics, distributors, and selected academics and professionals to a generous 1,639 participating international film critics, academics, distributors, writers, curators, and archivists concurrently. This left a speculation that consensus might form around a new set of films, the first step in their slow journey towards consecration.

The shakeup at the top happened, and hysteria ensued. This year, the best film of all time, Jeanne Dielman, 23 quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles (1975) is, or rather was, directed by a woman – the deceased Belgian legend Chantal Akerman. In 2012 when the poll was last held, Vertigo held the top spot, snatching it from Citizen Kane, which had held it for 50 years. Citizen Kane is now pushed to the number three slot. It has long enjoyed a reputation as some remote, inaccessible art-house monolith that seems to be going under a public reappraisal liberated from the ‘best-film-ever” label, which burdened it with a heavy significance that no film should ever have to carry. There’s less incentive to performatively act like it’s not all that.

Credits: RottenTomatoes

Jeanne Dielman and Beau Travail were the only films by female filmmakers in the top 100 in 2012. But this year’s poll features eleven films by female filmmakers in the top 100 and four in the top 20.

It is exciting for a film nerd like me, for people to find out about the whale that is Jeanne Dielman. Jeanne Dielman 23, Quai du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles is to describe in one word, excruciating; to describe in two, excruciatingly slow. It is the least accessible of all the films on the poll, not only in terms of its avant-garde nature but just plain consumption. The film is not easily available for streaming on demand on any of the major sites or to buy/rent in most countries. Thankfully, to commemorate this achievement, BFI has added it to their BFI Player streaming service.

The previously held positions for best film were Citizens Kane (Welles) and Vertigo (Hitchcock); departing from tradition, these movies, although undoubtedly transgressive and expanding the cinematic form greatly, were still “action” movies and not too esoteric to completely pass by your average layman. On the other hand, Dielman is long comfortable shots of the titular character Jeanne, preparing breakfast for herself and her son, folding clothes, washing dishes and murdering a man. A landmark piece of experimental feminist filmmaking featuring an 80% female crew, Akerman set to prove that a woman washing dishes can be art. No other film artist has explored the frustration of post-modern living with such tender care or acuity. She took a depression familiar to many of us and reflected it on the world with virtuosity. Lauding this posthumously feels messed up, but it is vital.

The usual response to these kinds of lists is to see how many inclusions you agree with but also to nit-pick and find the one film that didn’t make it onto the list, thus giving you a reason to argue about the arbitrariness of selecting films that have shared cultural importance. More movies coming out in the last decade means some potential to shift things around as people submit a top 10. The ten years is key here, along with more voters, because of a lot of things: a newer “generation” of “critics”, culture shifts, and the push for women filmmakers to be taken more seriously. One wonders how the percentage of women who could submit votes has changed since last time. And in the end, isn’t the mutating nature of these lists the most cathartic? What makes way for new films? How does one balance a film’s impact on the history of cinema with its unique importance to you?

The film landscape is ever-changing and some people find it hard to cope with. Paul Schrader, a brilliant artist and horrible person, in a hilarious tantrum, claimed a sort of election fraud because Dielman, a movie he personally likes, has climbed up too quickly. Paul Schrader’s dispute over Jeanne Dielman’s Number 1 spot, is for it not being a reflection of ‘film history’. His argument that it is predominantly white and male, relies on the misconception that film history has only ever been filled by white men.

The canon, for years, has excluded women and people of colour, though these people have been making movies since the days of silent cinema. A broader, more varied base of people amending the form’s canon must not be viewed as the bastardization of that canon but simply much-needed rectification.

Sumaiya Shakil is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Alisha Uvais

Social Media and Lack of Consent


‘Consent’, a term widely used in the sexual context, is an even wider and broad subject, which exists in variations of dimensions in society. Consent pertains to the permission of involving an individual in a variety of tasks. A lack of consent is considered a legal offence in certain specific subjects, whereas, it goes entirely unnoticed, or even normalised, stating the worst-case scenarios. One such field, where the lack of consent, is being widely observed is Social Media.

Social media platforms cater to a variety of content, ranging from reaction channels, to lifestyle vlogs and many more. While an impressive amount of people on these platforms tend to be sensitive to the idea of consent, it doesn’t take away the fact that there is an abundance of creators, who are completely oblivious to sensitive topics, including consent. These influencers, as we call them, are more than happy to tear apart anyone’s privacy without batting an eye on the emotional harm that is being caused to the person. There is a wide variety of such content creators, some of which will be discussed further.

Credits: Citizens and Technology Lab

Family Vloggers:

This category includes the creators, who mainly curate lifestyle-based content, which includes their private moments with their family as well. While these types of vlogs might be quite entertaining to the viewers, it has the power of causing severe harm to the children of these vloggers. There are many content creators who feature their pre-teen children or toddlers in these vlogs; children who might or might not want to be associated with the social media world, once they grow up. The free choice of being or not being involved in this part of the social system gets taken away from these individuals, since their childhood. Even if they pull away from these platforms once they mature, the trauma caused to them never wears off. As a consequence of being subjected to online bullying in the comment sections during their childhood period, these individuals tend to develop self-esteem issues in the later part of life. The idea of their privacy being taken away from the beginning; of not having any security, could haunt them forever. According to a case study performed by Carolina Carrelo, by appearing in nearly half of the video titles as well as in the videos themselves, one might infer that kids are the primary players in family vlogging. The parents use sensationalistic strategies in an effort to boost the channel’s appeal. This tactic appears to be effective as, when combined, five videos under analysis received an astounding 408 million views. This significant exposure not only violates the privacy of the youngsters but also leaves them defenseless. As per few child psychologists, the exposure to fame and consent pressure of performance since infancy or early toddler years, could lead to depression and PTSD in future.

Credits: Medium

Uncalled-for Interviews:

Ever since numerous social media platforms introduced the feature of short videos, there is an overflowing amount of short street interviews, where random questions are being asked to a bunch of individuals, imploring their opinions, ranging from personal to non-personal ones. While most of these videos are consensual, one cannot deny the existence of non-consensual ones. For instance, there are a large number of videos where an individual, shy of such interviews or non-cooperative, is made fun of, through quirky editing styles and background scores. The control of being or not being there, in the eye of the masses is taken away from these individuals, who might be uncomfortable in social situations. This could augment the levels of social anxiety among such people.

Prank Videos:

Perhaps the worst-case scenario, mentioned above, pertains to this area of the social media world. These are unsolicited, uncalled-for videos, where the content creators try to pull pranks on, mainly, the common public. This format is not only a drastic invasion of one’s private space but might also result in physical or mental damage to the target. Being extremely damaging, in multidimensional ways, such videos continue to exist and thrive on social media platforms. They often attract online bullies over the victim rather than the offender, creating an unsafe environment for the former individuals’ mental health. In one such case, 11 year old Tysen Benz, hailing from Michigan, killed himself as a trauma response after hearing about the death of his girlfriend through social media. The death later turned out to be a prank pulled by her and her group of friends. In another instance, YouTuber Timothy Wilks, got killed in self defense by a man he was pulling a robbery prank on.

Credits: YouTube

In conclusion, due to the abundant nature of such videos, it’s nearly impossible to escape from the constant invasion of privacy. But, the problem could be dealt with, in a better way through improved monitoring methods. The higher-up authorities need to enforce substantial laws or codes of conduct, for the matter of private space, and the implementation should be looked upon keenly. Furthermore, the corporations running these social media platforms need to be rigidly held accountable for the type of content going up on their sites. The formats mentioned above, might be quite entertaining and fun, but should never reach a point of causing any sort of harm to any individual involved.

Ashna Arif is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maryam Hassan

Department of Urdu, JMI, completes 50 years


Fiftieth anniversary of the Urdu Department, Jamia Millia Islamia is a forerunner in the significant vision of promotion of Urdu language” -Syed Shahid Mehdi on the completion of 50 years of the Urdu Department.

Department of Urdu, Jamia Millia Islamia successfully completed fifty golden years of its establishment on 25th November 2022. On this momentous occasion, the department organised a series of programs to mark an enthusiastic celebration of its Golden Jubilee.

The celebration began on Thursday, 24th November by the inauguration of an exhibition presented by the students depicting the long journey and achievements of the department, entitled as: “The story of the Half century, through the language of pictures“. Professor Mohd Asaduddin, Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Languages, inaugurated the event.

Series of programs continued the next day, on 25th November. The day began with an opening ceremony at 10:30am in the Conference Hall, CIT that hosted a bouquet of distinguished Urdu and Persian scholars, writers, professors including Dr. Mohd Muqeem, Professor Ahmed Mehfooz, Professor Shareef Husain Qasmi, Professor Shaikh Aqeel Ahmed (Director, NCPUL, JMI), Syed Shahid Mehdi (Former Vice Chancellor, JMI), Professor Siddiqur Rehman Qidwai, Professor Mohd Asaduddin and Professor Nadeem Ahmed as guests.

The second session began at 3:30 pm in the Auditorium Hall, Faculty of Engineering. It was a Panel Discussion among the respected alumni of the department including Professor Qazi Ubaidurrehman Hashmi, Professor Khalid Mehmood, Professor Shehnaz Anjum, Professor Wahajuddin Alvi (Former Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Languages), Professor Shehpar Rasool and Professor Suhail Ahmed Faruqui. Guests shared their experiences during their tenure at JMI and how they feel about it today. They congratulated the faculty of Urdu as well as the students who have played a significant role in this success. This session ended with a documentary presentation about the Urdu Department, its history and present.

The third and the last program was a ‘Mushaira‘ attended by a huge crowd which began at 5:30 pm. This program was chaired by Prof. Najma Akhtar, VC, JMI who also felicitated Professor Khalid Jawaid of the Urdu department on winning the 2022 JCB Prize for Literature. The program was presided by renowned Urdu poet, Waqar Manvi. Poetry of Dr. Md. Mubashshir, Dr. Abdul Naseeb Khan, Shafaq Sopori, Dr Suhail Ahmed Faruqui, Dr Tabish Mehdi, Professor Khalid Mehmood were loved by the audience. The day ended with a note of thanks by the Professor Ahmed Mehfooz, HoD, Department of Urdu. Dr. Nadeem Ahmed played an important role in organizing the event and its successful completion.

Report by: Syed Ilham Jafri for TJR.

Self-harm driven by External Validation


An adrenaline rush is a physical feeling of intense excitement and stimulation caused by the release of adrenaline from the adrenal glands, induced by various activities that may act as distractions in times of despair. This includes indulging in outdoor activities, playing violent-risk-taking games, or causing harm to oneself. The pain that is inflicted can release endorphins and a rush of adrenaline, which often becomes pleasurable to the sufferer and causes them to temporarily forget other negative feelings that they may be experiencing. Many times, these people seek external validation to deal with their isolation and suffering, and this need forces them to cause irreparable harm to themselves.

For a long time, video games have been heavily criticised for the violent aggression they inflict on their users, especially teenagers. In the midst of all this altercation, there came into existence several social media challenges that led their users, particularly teenagers, into self-harm, which often proved deadly.

Credits: Hindustan Times

The Blue Whale Suicide Game was an online social media group in which administrators asked users to complete a series of challenges that culminated in their killing themselves. The game instructs participants to complete 50 tasks over the course of 50 days, such as carving specific phrases or symbols on their hands, watching scary videos, waking up at odd hours, and so on. As the game progresses towards its final day, it results in suicide of the participant. The participant must demonstrate completion of the task by sending proof, such as photographs, to the “curator” or “the whale.” According to reports, the game is to blame for hundreds of teen suicides worldwide. The creator of the game admitted that the victims of the game are ‘biological waste’ and that he was “cleansing the society“.

Some bizarre challenges surfacing over social media platforms like WhatsApp and Tik-Tok are:

The choking challenge: This challenge gained popularity when teenagers began choking themselves to get high. The players were actually cutting the oxygen supply to their brain, leading to a temporary euphoria. This single game has claimed 250 to 1,000 lives per year in the US alone.

Ice and salt challenge: In this game, salt is poured on the body before immediately placing ice over it. This creates a burning sensation. The player has to bear the pain for the longest time. This game can be deadly. Ice, water, and salt mixtures can cause second- and third-degree burns.

The cutting challenge: Directly playing with vulnerable kids, this game makes teenagers cut themselves on purpose, click pictures of the injuries, and upload these online.

The cinnamon challenge: Cinnamon, which is a healthy food, can prove to be ghastly for health if taken in an uncontrolled manner. In this challenge, teenagers are asked to swallow a spoonful of cinnamon without drinking water. This amount of cinnamon can collapse your lungs and also cause choking. There have been cases in which people have died from this challenge.

Credits: Tik-Tok

The rising number of deaths in the name of “challenges” calls for understanding the idea behind getting attracted to such life-threatening games. Psychologists worldwide feel that people, especially youngsters, are increasingly turning to external sources of validation. This is aided by drawbacks in present parenting styles that push teenagers into isolation, who are then often enveloped by online games that draw them into the limelight.

Analysis of suicide-themed Instagram posts indicate that self-harm was present in the majority of the posts. Posts about suicide ideation elicited higher engagement than posts that did not. Such challenges give teenagers their privacy, the attention, and the validation they yearn for.

This dark side of the internet calls for attention to transforming the social system, particularly in the field of mental health issues.

Bushra Faridi is a student pursuing Geography Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Shoa Falak

Agra and its role in The Revolt of 1857


Agra, being one of the oldest settlements of India, possesses remarkable contributions in political, economic, industrial, and social history of the country. Likewise, the city has always been ahead in the freedom struggle against the colonial British forces and has its own major role in igniting the spark of rebellion in the revolution of 1857.

According to many myths and ancient stories, Agra is settled from the time of Pandavas and Kauravas, but on the basis of various authentic historical facts, historians believe that the work of bringing Agra into the light of history was done by Sultan Sikandar of the Lodi dynasty. In 1494 AD, Sultan Sikandar Lodi started establishing the city on the banks of the Yamuna river and issued a decree to name it Agra. By his order in 1504, the capital of India was shifted from Delhi to Agra.

Credits: The Granger Collection

The British rule over Agra lasted about 150 years from 1803 to 1947. The history of the city in these years has been written as the glorious tale of the ceaseless struggle of the citizens of Agra against the British. It took myriads of unmatched sacrifices of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, labourers, students, teachers, farmers, traders, government employees, women, and children of Agra to break the shackles of English slavery.

The Agra Fort was captured by the British in October 1803. At that time, a slow flame was smouldering against their oppression in the whole of India. In 1823, on the basis of the Parliament Act, Agra Presidency was formed and Lord C. T. Metcalfe was appointed as the first governor. In 1824, Lord Hastings sent precious stones, glasses, and other items of Agra Fort’s Sheesh Mahal to England. In 1828, Lord Bentinck auctioned off the rest of the valuables of Sheesh Mahal. The British were not paying the full value of their products to the Agra factory workers, forcing labour from the workers, imposing Christian education on the students, etc. This was inculcating anger and aversion among the people. The result of this was Agra’s inclusion in the 1857 freedom struggle.

From time to time, apart from the ambassador of the king and the leader of the revolution Bahadur Shah Zafar, Nana Saheb, Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah, Tantya Tope, and the general of the queen of Jhansi, Azimullah Khan, etc. used to incite the civilians against the tyranny of the British. Mangal Pandey blew the bugle of the revolt of 1857 in Meerut. On May 1, 1857, preparations were made for the revolt in Agra. On 22 May, Mirza Jawan Bakht, the prince of Delhi’s emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar, came to Agra and at his behest, a fierce fire was set on the infantry hospital. This was the first sign of the freedom struggle in Agra. Maulvi Raisuddin, Imam Shah Shujaullah, Rahmat Ali Khan, Kripashankar, Gorelal Contractor, and others participated in this act.

Credits: Unknown

After this, British troops and rebels from Meerut, Neemuch, Mathura, Aligarh, Hathras, and Mainpuri started reaching Agra. There were fierce battles between them at many places on the way. A meeting of the freedom fighters of this region was held under the chairmanship of Thakur Laxman Singh Chauhan on May 1, 1857, where it was announced to wage a war against the foreign rule. Under this program, the treasury of the tehsil was looted. Jats and Kshatriyas had opened their front in Chulhavali. Under the leadership of Mr. Rukum Singh and Thakur Dhiri Singh, the Mukti soldiers taught a lesson to the British but after several days of fierce battle, Mukti soldiers were defeated. Ten of the leaders were arrested and hanged, along with seven others being sentenced to life imprisonment. The fort of Chulhavali was blown up with a cannon and all seven lands were confiscated. At the same time, a contingent of Muslims and Jats led by the Zamindar of Runkata, Shabd Beg Khan, killed ten Britishers. After the crime was proven, twelve soldiers including Shabd Baig Khan, Abdullah Baig Khan, Inayat Ali Khan, and Rahim Baksh were gunned down.

By July 4, 1857, India’s freedom struggle had completely spread throughout the country. The pressure on revolutionaries was increasing in and around Agra. Revolutionaries demolished government buildings and started heavy vandalism. A lot of Agra Colleges (government building) and Tehsil were blown up by cannons. An officer of the Sindhi army posted in Agra to look after the British administration was murdered. At this time Agra had become an important center for the enthusiasm of the patriots. The Muslim community was openly taking a front with other revolutionaries. Qureshis, Mewatis, Pathans, and other ancestries vowed to destroy the foreign rule completely. A contingent of 80 Muslims, led by Sultan Ali, armed with guns, spears, and swords, marched towards Keetham where the British army was reported to have assembled. By this time, the Indian police under the British had also started helping the revolutionaries. Finally, the government police also went to war with the revolutionaries on the 6th of July. The Kotwal of the city, Muhammad Murad Ali, flouting all the English orders, declared independence in the city and declared a revolution, as the collector of the district. A concatenation of several significant events took place in Agra that played vital roles in strengthening the revolution of 1857.

Syed Ilham Jafri is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

Entrepreneurship Cell of JMI Organized the University’s First-Ever Founders’ Meet on its 102nd Foundation Day


On 29 October 2022, E-Cell Jamia Millia Islamia, hosted the university’s first-ever Founders’ Meet. Several entrepreneurs-cum-alumni attended the event to inspire and foster the entrepreneurial spirit among the students. Over 100 startup founders and entrepreneurs joined the Founders’ Meet to network, learn, and discuss the various problems and solutions in the industry. The Jamia Review collaborated with E-Cell as their media partner to bring the concepts of startups and entrepreneurship to a wider audience.

E-Cell JMI is a student organization that strives to educate people about startups and entrepreneurship. The primary goal of the organization is to nurture an entrepreneurial mindset among the students through a variety of activities, professional guest lectures, and workshops.

Credits: Zaina Shahid Khan

The Founders’ Meet took place on 29 October 2022 at 2:00 pm, at the CIE Co-Working space, wherein three successful business owners were honored as the chief guests. Other investors, founders, and small-business present at the event used the opportunity to learn, grow, and explore all the concerns and doubts on their minds.

The guest delegate included Dr. Ruha Shadab, founder of the Led By Foundation; Atyab Mohammad, co-founder of Wigzo Technologies, a comprehensive Al-powered marketing automation tech suite for e-commerce brands; Ambuj Saxena, the co-founder of Social Buzz; Mubashir Naseer, co-founder of Quilt Comfort. Mr. Atyab, Mr. Ambuj as well as Mr. Mubashir are the alumni of Jamia Millia Islamia.

Credits: Adnan Hasan Khan

Entrepreneurs from Jamia were able to interact with a huge number of founders and business owners at the event and network with them. The entrepreneurs introduced themselves and shared their professional experiences to start the session.

Dr. Ruha Shadab, who founded the Led By Foundation, India’s first incubator to promote leadership and professional development among Indian Muslim women, also engaged in insightful discussions with female business owners who were eager to start their entrepreneurial journeys.

Students were also presented with the opportunity to pitch their startup ideas to the leaders of the industry and get wise counsel from them. In total, around 173 people attended the Founders’ Meet, with over 80 entrepreneurs and 30 investors present among them.

Along with the Founders’ Talk, the event also included Pod Discussions, High Networking Opportunities, and Question & Answer Sessions.

Following their incisive speeches, the speakers engaged in one-on-one Pod discussions with the audience. Founders in the Pod exchanged ideas and solutions for the difficulties that many entrepreneurs were facing.

An interactive “Chai pe Charcha” session was hosted thereafter, giving a valuable space for business owners to speak with all four chief guests. The interactive session brought the event to a close.

In the end, the attendees were invited to leave messages as their feedback on the event, garnering a positive response from them.

With the collective efforts of all the members of E-Cell, presenters, attendees, and guests, the event proved to be a huge success.

Report by: Moneera Aiman for TJR.

Enactus JMI bagged the first position in the Enactus Global Race for Climate Action, USA


‘Project Shrimati’, the flagship project of Enactus Jamia Millia Islamia, emerged as the global champion by securing the first rank in the ‘2022 Race for Climate Action Impact’, on 3rd November at the Enactus World Cup 2022 held in Puerto Rico, USA.

Enactus is the world’s largest experiential learning platform dedicated to creating a better world while developing the next generation of entrepreneurial leaders and social innovators. The Enactus network of global business, academic and student leaders are unified by the vision—to create a better, more sustainable world. Nearly 37,470 students associated with Enactus are entrepreneurial, values-driven social innovators across 2,064 campuses in 33 countries, positively impacting the lives of 11.6 million people each year.

Innovators, creators, global citizens, and business, student and academic leaders from around the globe were welcomed at Enactus World Cup 2022, given their efforts in taking action to change the world for good. The teams under Enactus India, including Enactus JMI virtually represented their respective universities through their innovative projects from Gurugram. The primary presenters of Project Shrimati were 4 students from Jamia Millia Islamia namely, Gaurav Chakraborty (Dept. of Economics), Manal Siddiqui (Dept. of Chemistry), Maham Kamal (Dept. of English) and Izeen Fatima (Dept. of Psychology).

‘Project Shrimati’ is an initiative by Enactus Jamia Millia Islamia, which aims to tackle the prevalent problems in our country such as unemployment, plastic pollution, menstrual hygiene and sanitary waste disposal while also uplifting and empowering the women of our society by providing them with financial stability through employment. The project manufactures reusable, eco-friendly sanitary pads to combat the numerous environmental problems associated with the widespread disposal of plastic waste along with raising awareness of menstrual health and hygiene through awareness campaigns and distribution drives.

In its latest achievement, Project Shrimati has expanded its influence in Southern India, as a new production unit of the project is under development in Goa in collaboration with Axzora Group and Ethernet Xpress. As of now, Enactus JMI, through Project Shrimati, has been successful in motivating 2750 women and girls to switch to our reusable Shrimati Pads, thus reducing 14.575 metric tons of CO2 emissions.

The Race for Climate Action is a competition that aims to identify and mobilize Enactus teams that work to address the climate crisis. Alongside Project Shrimati, the chosen top 5 finalists from a field of 90 entries and 16 countries, included Project Nawah (Dyal Singh College, India), Zaraat (Delhi College of Arts and Commerce, India), Swabun (Ramjas College), and BettaCoal (University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria). Justifying their motto of “Social Diligence”, Enactus JMI has represented Jamia Millia Islamia and the country by emerging as global champions.

Report by: Syed Ilham Jafri for TJR.

Period Dramas: What’s The Hype?


In recent months, I have become conscious of an emerging pattern in terms of TV shows. Period dramas are taking over TV in every direction! A period drama is a television show that is set during a specific historical era and uses time-appropriate sets, costumes, and props. Period dramas are, of course, nothing new; the subgenre has been there for a long time. However, there has been a perceptible increase in period dramas aimed at young audiences.

Credits: ABlueNest

People watch historical dramas for a variety of reasons, including a sense of history, the attire and manners of a medieval society, which they may feel were either superior to or more romantic than our way of life now. Many historical dramas center on the lifestyles of the wealthy, who reside in fortresses, attend balls and other lavish events, and swan around in stunning gowns frequently by candlelight, which gives everything a warm, romantic shine. Some people find period dramas enjoyable because they lack the profanity, violence, explosions, and protracted action sequences that characterize so many modern dramas.

Dr. Pamela B. Rutledge, director of the Media Psychology Research Center, says that period dramas are about people and their human connections, from love stories to comrades in arms. They allow us to experience extremes of emotion without the existential threat. “These [period] stories are like a flight simulator for life,” she says. “They show us ways of being through universal themes of love, betrayal, redemption, innocence, justice, sacrifice, and transformation.” Dramas set in the past frequently emphasize its beauties rather than its challenges. It’s not necessary for the past to appear as complex as the present when it’s created, as is the case with historical dramas. We can read about the past or see it on television, but we never have to actually go through the complicated and challenging times. Given how challenging their lives already are, this acts as a reassurance to the viewers and keeps them hooked.

Credits: WhatsOnNetflix

Here are few of the most popular period dramas streaming on the OTT platforms that you can binge, and delve into this world of manicured lawns, pretty hats, and fancy carriages.

1. Downton Abbey: Downton Abbey, one of the most popular period dramas of all time, has been a huge success in both the UK and the US. The series, which first launched in 2010, follows the aristocratic lives of the Crawley family between 1912 and 1926. Till date, it’s the most watched television show on both ITV and PBS, and it subsequently became the most successful British costume drama series since the 1981 television series of Brideshead Revisited. The plot involves Robert Crawley, who risks losing the family estate after his heirs die on the Titanic. Soon, the Crawleys are introduced to Matthew, the next heir in line, who resists the aristocratic way of life.

2. Bridgeton: Bridgerton is an American historical-romance television series based on Julia Quinn’s novels. It is created by Chris Van Dusen and is Shondaland’s first scripted show for Netflix. It revolves around the eponymous Bridgerton family and is set in the competitive world of Regency era London’s during the social season where marriageable youth of nobility and gentry are launched into society. Season one of the series made history on the streaming platform with 82 million viewers worldwide, proving that period dramas are firmly back on trend.

3. The Spanish Princess : Henry VIII is renowned as the king who alienated the Catholic Church and changed the course of history by taking six wives. In The Spanish Princess, Catherine of Aragon (Charlotte Hope), who was originally sent to England from Spain to wed the infamous monarch’s elder brother, Arthur, offers a profoundly different perspective on the renowned ruler.

4. The Crown : Even the fiercest opponents of the monarchy and critics of historical dramas have become fans of The Crown. In order to provide insights into the inner dynamics and operations of the British royal family, the programme centers on Queen Elizabeth II and follows her life from an early age to more recent times. It has won praise for its acting performances, cinematography, and compelling narrative.

5. Anne with an E : An adaptation of the classic novel Anne of the Green Gables, revolves around a young orphaned girl who, after an abusive childhood spent in orphanages and the homes of strangers, is mistakenly sent to live with an elderly spinster and her aging brother.

Productions set in the past offer spectators a variety of experiences, including contemporary personalities, compelling historical figures, and renowned literary works based on real and imagined events. Regardless of the source of the story, audiences enjoy spending several hours with the characters to learn more about their storylines as well as for entertainment value. Audiences are transported to a different age by the overall style, ornate clothing, and stunning sets, which draw us deeply into the world we are seeing on television.

Mariam Tuba is a student pursuing Psychology from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Shoa Falak

The Foremost Of the Revolutionaries: Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)


The world has seen a myriad set of individuals who had been a source of divine guidance and spiritual fulfilment for the masses, whom we call Prophets or Messengers. But there is none who has been as influential in History as the last Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (PBUH). This is not merely a claim on grounds of emotions or sentiments, rather it’s based on the iconic, notable change that Muhammad (PBUH) brought into the world within a very less time span as compared to any other. This is why Michael Hart, notable astrophysicist and author of the best-selling work, ‘The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History’ from America places Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) on the first rank.

Credits: IslamWiki

It is generally considered that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was merely a spiritual preceptor who lived in a desert, far from the urban practicality of life. This is just a pre-set falsified notion that has been promulgated through various platforms ranging from orientalists literature to movies, media, and the internet to hide the certitude that the revolution brought by Muhammad (PBUH) was not only spiritual, (indeed which had a significant place too) but also ideological, political and moral. He did not just leave his followers clueless about how to follow his teachings, but also presented a divine, well-formulated legislature and jurisprudence that appeases human intellect, logic as well as rationality.

The Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (PBUH), was born in Arabia on April 22, 571 AD, and passed away on June 6, 6632. As he grew up, his personality became noticeable. He had such a generous, soft-hearted, and sweet-spoken personality that anyone who stood close to him for a while, started loving him. Noble hallmarks of tolerance, truth, courage, optimism, treating others with generosity, care, and many others were found in him at the perfect level. He was the epitome of perfect characteristics in a human, which is called a balanced personality in the terms of psychology. Daud bin Hussain, a renowned Hadith narrator says that the people of Arabia were generally heard to say that Muhammad bin Abdullah grew up young with the fact that he was the most virtuous, gentle, tolerant, righteous, truthful, honest of his people. He took care of his neighbors. He was far away from quarrels and avoided obscenity and abuse. This is why the people named him “Al-Amin” or “The Guardian of Possessions.” (Paighmbar-e-Inquilab: Molana Wahiduddin Khan)

Ancient Arabia was facing serious political issues. In the east of Arabia was Iran, where the powerful Sassanid Empire was established. In the north was the Roman or Byzantine Empire. Both these empires had made Arab geography the arena of their politics. The best fertile areas of Arabia were directly under their control. Iraq was occupied by the Iranians. Syria, Jordan, Palestine, and Lebanon were part of the Roman Empire. Arabia, on the east and the west, was not protected from the invasions of the neighboring powers and empires. From the east, the Iranian fleets used to cross the Gulf of Oman and enter the Arabian region very easily, and then go west to the two countries on the other side. Egypt and Abyssinia were under the Roman Empire. And through them, it could at any time penetrate into this apparently safe part of Arabia. Arabs used to live under their traditional tribal system. The states of the tribal chiefs were established in the inner region of Arabia, but due to the general dominance of the Romans and Iranians, they accepted the subordination of these external empires and make their own political island. The Arabs generally were astray from reading, writing, and academic education and pursued traits of great bravery, dominated by ones who were in general barbaric, uncouth, and boorish, and continued their personal rivalries and fights for years.

These details explicitly show that when the Prophet of Islam was sent, the Arab region was a hunting ground for Iranians and Romans. Amid all these circumstances, Prophet Muhammad initiated the journey of his divine responsibility to spread the message of truth and show mankind the real path to success in this world and the hereafter. The Prophet miraculously brought up a change that has transformed the living style, standard of thinking, and actions of billions of people from his time till today.

Credits: Ancient Origin

Another very striking feature is to note the fact that according to historical records, a total of 1018 people were killed in the Islamic revolution that took place during the time of the Messenger of Allah(PBUH). This revolution took 23 years to emerge. The number of battles fought in these 23 years is said to be 81, out of which, the Prophet of Islam participated in just 27 himself. Among these too, the proper war took place only in a few. The total number of Muslim casualties overall in these battles is estimated to be 259 and on the other hand, Non-Muslim casualties were 759, which in total counts to be a loss of very few numbers of people than other considered revolutions in the world. This was one of the greatest revolution in the world which changed the course of human history. The number of victims in such a big revolution is so minor that it can be called a bloodless revolution. This was due to the very natural way of living that satisfies and appeases human nature on all levels. It was a revolution that firstly conquered minds and hearts and then lands because if it was not the case, how could it reach every corner of the world and be accepted by billions even today? The answer is, the purpose of Islam from day one is to establish equality, justice, and peace, which is the ultimate need for humans’ very existence in this world through the divine system given to humans by the Almighty Creator through Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). (Source For Data: Paighmbar-e-Inquilab: Molana Wahiduddin Khan)

Syed Ilham Jafri is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

Hazards of ‘The Manic Pixie Dream Girl’


Pop culture has been bombarding us with variations of cinematic tropes, and one of these well-known tropes is the ‘Manic Pixie Dream Girl’. The character of the manic pixie dream girl is largely written and shaped, for and opposite, to the depressed and lonely male protagonist, who is mainly going through an existential crisis.

The manic pixie dream girl has been quite popular in Bollywood as well as in films abroad. She is often portrayed to be conventionally attractive, reflects an enchanting charisma from the get-go and has a cheerful and bubbly persona. Furthermore, she is outgoing and fun to be around. She is generally quirky and fits the ‘I am not like other girls’ cliché, as her speech and actions suggest. She belongs to the creed of YOLO.

The instances of this trope can be traced from various movies, including Elizabethan Town, Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara, Jab Tak Hai Jaan, Ghajini and many more. While women with these characteristics are undoubtedly amazing, the trope turns out to be problematic because of the misrepresentation of these characters.

Credits: Youth ki Awaaz

Firstly, the portrayal of their personalities is mostly dimensional and the characters often lack depth and layers to their identity. As the name suggests, these women are merely an object of appeasing male fantasy, who are often mistaken to exist in reality. Secondly, while these characteristics could be a part of one’s personality, they are incapable of defining the person entirely.

The manic pixie dream girl generally does not have her own goals and problems in life, and exists, only for a matter of enlightening the dull male protagonists to adapt to a cheerful vision of life. On the part of the makers, there is little to no accountability shown towards the mental health of this character. She is invariably available to enrich your mental health, but the concept does not exist on her own.

The trope is perpetually and unrealistically cheerful, even when suffering through befallen misery. This strengthens the preconceived notions towards a woman’s personality that often lacks awareness of her mental health issues. This trope imposes an immense amount of pressure on female romantic partners, as it is quite impossible to conform to the unrealistic standards set in the minds of the majority of men in society. The trope is often composed from the male perspective and leaves no room for a realistic portrayal of the dimensions carried in the personality of women.

The Character of Geet: Breaking Stereotypes

Credits: YouTube @ cherry bepsi

The character of Geet from Jab We Met, is frequently labelled as being the ultimate manic pixie dream girl. While she is shaped by various qualities of the trope, Imtiaz Ali managed to break the stereotype in the second half. Being cheerful and outgoing does not make Geet the manic pixie dream girl. This could be traced from the portrayal of her character when befallen misery. Geet exhibited human emotions when her feelings were hurt by an individual. Instead of fitting the cliché and laughing off the feelings, she rather embraced her emotions and gave herself the needed time to grieve. Her character was portrayed to be multidimensional and went through various phases and showed realistic development. Even from the get-go, she had her ambitions and goals in life. Geet, one of the most iconic characters of Bollywood, managed to break the manic pixie dream girl stereotype and felt like a breath of fresh air.

Although the manic pixie dream girls are more or less likable characters, they should be looked at through a different and realistic perspective. The makers, writers or the directors, need to add more depth to such characters, hence formulating them to be multi-dimensional and realistic.

Ashna Arif is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Shoa Falak

Why the US Teacher Shortage Crisis is a Warning Bell for the Indian Education System


Teachers are God’s blessings for us. Throughout a student’s life, they multitask to fill many shoes, including those of a friend, a mentor, or a parent. For all that they do for us, our teachers don’t get the due they deserve. Alarmingly, this metaphor is gradually transforming into a real crisis in the United States, where the number of teachers leaving the profession is increasing every day.

The mass exodus of teaching and non-teaching school staff has shed light on how little America appreciates its teachers and how obvious this has become over the past several years, according to educators, education officials, and experts. There is unquestionably a morale and confidence crisis, especially in the wake of the pandemic. The idea that one can work hard, do good for kids, and have a fulfilling career as a teacher, has completely collapsed. However, it is important to note that the teacher shortage is not a problem endemic to the US alone.

Teacher Shortages Are Not New

A recent UNESCO report titled ‘No Teacher, No Class’ suggests a disturbing shortage of over one million teachers across schools in India, with over one lakh vacancies in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the highest in our country. To make matters worse, the state of teachers in the Northern and North-Eastern parts of the country is poor.

In fact, one can see a significant rural-urban disparity in the living and working conditions of teachers in our country. Access to well-equipped libraries and proper ICT-enabled tools is a luxury available only to teachers from well-connected towns and cities, while teachers from the heartland are forced to make do with the meagre resources available to them.

According to the research, 30% of the teaching workforce is employed in the private, unassisted sector, while 50% work for the government. The study also notes that although teacher availability has increased, student-teacher ratios in secondary schools remain unfavourable. Early childhood educators and teachers at private schools are at risk since many toil hard without contracts for meagre pay and offer no maternity or health benefits.

Why are Teachers Forced to Quit their Jobs?

The typical causes of teacher dissatisfaction are ever-present, but during the past five years, teaching environments have deteriorated for the worse. Unprecedented workload, increased responsibilities, unreasonable demands, student behavioural concerns, remuneration that hasn’t kept up with inflation, a lack of help from school administration, and parental support are some of the causes that force teachers to leave their jobs.

Although pay scales do play a role in a teacher’s decision to stay in the profession, historically speaking, they haven’t been the key determinant. There is a serious issue with the teaching force’s severe demoralisation. A lack of trust in teachers has also been building for decades as a result of constant regulations dictating what to teach and what not to teach as well as the absurdity of trying to measure everything.

At its heart, teaching is a creative profession, and curtailing the freedom to discuss certain topics in class inhibits teachers from having open discussions with their students, and making a real difference in their lives. Teachers value being given professional autonomy and disregarding this is demotivating for them. The added work pressure, although invisible, is a source of stress for teachers.

The Alarming Lack of Solutions

Back in 2001, when the teacher shortage was first predicted, representatives of teacher groups and teaching bodies suggested that increasing the salaries and honoring the prestige associated with the profession of teaching will help in attracting young college graduates to the teaching workforce. Sadly, teachers remain undervalued despite the efforts they put in for the students, and lawmakers aren’t taking any measures to combat the issue.

To combat the immediate shortage, several districts ask administrators or staff to fill in occasionally to cover extra classes. In other parts of the world, employers are recruiting instructors from job fairs, offering higher salaries, or luring professionals with four-day work weeks.

That being said, teachers have an inalienable influence on student progress more than any other component in the classroom. Experts caution that such rapid remedies could backfire if they choose teachers who are unprepared or unqualified. Perhaps the group most at risk from teacher shortages is the students. Their self-confidence will erode as their learning losses surmount, and their saviors will have left their jobs by the time the policymakers acknowledge the problem.

K. R. Swathi is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

The Toxic Haul Culture


In recent times, social media has become an inseparable part of our lives. It emerged as a medium of alternate income for some, and a platform to showcase one’s artistic abilities for others. While bringing a positive impact on a lot of people, it also developed into a mode of destruction for many others. One is often bombarded with endless videos directed toward our screens through the algorithm. Unintentionally, the content becomes a huge part of one’s lifestyle. It starts taking control of our behavior and life by simply manipulating our reasoning and decision-making. One such variation of the content is the haul culture, spread across various social media sites.

The haul culture basically stands for a trend of videos, termed hauls, where people showcase the products they’ve purchased recently, and the positive and negative impacts the said products created in their lives.

Credits: MuccyCloud

This type of content is mostly consumed in the fashion industry. The internet is flooded with fashion tutorials, which may or may not perform well in terms of reach and engagement. The haul videos, however, bag a larger view count. These hauls are created to enhance one’s experience while shopping for their desirable entities. They turn out to be pretty useful for a better understanding of the latest fashion trends. While the idea sounds quite helpful, here are a few reasons why it could be incredibly destructive for some of us, especially when consumed irrationally.

Firstly, the haul culture promotes consumerism. Consumerism refers to the ideology of relating happiness with the assets we own. It endorses the belief that if one is consuming or purchasing more and more, he will ultimately achieve happiness. The more you have, the happier you are. Now there’s nothing fundamentally wrong with the ideology itself, as it’s true in some cases. Few people actually attain a feeling of happiness on acquiring an asset. But it becomes toxic and destructive when done excessively or done to attain long-term peace and happiness, as honestly, happiness is not something that could be ultimately achieved by ticking off a bunch of stuff from our bucket lists.

Excessive consumerism puts you in a situation where your happiness and satisfaction become completely dependent on the things you are capable of purchasing, and you end up being emotionally exhausted. Your state of fulfilment and peace of mind is immediately pulled away when you find yourself in a situation where you are not capable to acquire the object.

Credits: MindHelp

Secondly, it has started to cause harm to the environment. The constant consumption of such haul videos thrown around social media makes us purchase clothing and stuff, just to fit into the latest fashion norm and look trendy enough to be socially acceptable. These fast fashion brands come up with numerous marketing strategies including festive sales to lure consumers into buying what fits the trend. That being said, fast fashion trends change within a span of a few weeks. This makes the consumer purchase clothing quite often, which includes pieces they might not wear after one or two uses. The out-of-trend clothes create bulks of waste, which puts the dumping grounds in a difficult situation.

Lastly, the haul culture has been causing tremendous damage to the mental health of the masses. Most of the time, the haul videos are sponsored by fast fashion brands where they target the masses by getting their product endorsed by renowned influencers. The strategic video titles with must-have thumbnails constantly try to shove down things into our wardrobes that we don’t really need.

These videos promote toxic perfectionism by creating a false need to consume certain objects for leading a life that is complete in each aspect. Most videos are portrayed in such a way that one begins to get consumed in the contemplation of not being fulfilled enough and new voids begin to exist in one’s personality. The fact that neither everyone has the same requirements, nor every person among the audience owns the finances to afford them, gets forgotten in the process. The constant consumption of such content takes away the control of reasoning from one’s hands, and they are left with confusion, chaos, and an inferiority complex.

Credits: YouTube

A way to break out of the pattern of mindless purchasing is to ask oneself a few questions while out shopping or when about to get indulged in online purchasing. One must assess if one would need the product quite often and if one already owns an alternative for the same. This could help people avoid impulsive purchasing, and could also be beneficial for the environment.

Ashna Arif is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Anzal Khan

The Silver Screen Battles: Why Bollywood is being Boycotted


Media has always been a means of bringing pertinent issues to the forefront, thus influencing public sentiment. Films, in particular, have the power to capture the attention of the audience, offering them imagination as well as insight. However, while the film industry has been reckoned as India’s soft power due to its capacity to entertain and educate, it has simultaneously become a soft target for trolls as well as vicious attackers.

The Crisis of Boycotts

It has become a common practice to call for the boycott of films before they are released, frequently based on baseless arguments. Sometimes we see celebrities being harassed for their appearance, while at other times, “hurt sentiments” lead to taking offence at trivial things. A cursory glance at some of the latest Bollywood releases shows that the reasons for the boycott can range from petty to vile to downright comical.

Credits: TFIPOST

The hashtag #BoycottBollywood is most likely related to the negative press the business has received in recent years, which peaked in the wake of claims of debauchery and nepotism in Bollywood. Examples can be seen in the form of the poor reception of movies such as ‘Laal Singh Chadha’, even as movies from down south continue to be received well.

Is Bollywood Still Somehow Relevant?

Believe it or not, it is. The Hindi film industry has impacted not only the culture but also the economy of our country. As the biggest entertainment sector in India, Bollywood has long had an impact on society and culture; many of the country’s musical, dancing, wedding, and fashion trends are derived directly from Bollywood. Undoubtedly, Bollywood is to blame for our unrealistic expectations of college life (looking at you, Karan Johar!)

On a serious note, Bollywood has proven to be a reflection of our national identity, bringing stories from various parts of the country to the big screen, no matter how untasteful the adaptation may be. And while Bollywood has generated several stereotypical portraits of our country, it has also helped to showcase India as a land beyond snake charmers and bullock carts to a global audience.

Bollywood, in its own right, is a successful Indian business contributing 40% of India’s income. Unquestionably one of India’s biggest industries, it is also magnificent and dazzling. The yearly growth rate of the industry, which ranges between 10% and 20%, is also surprisingly high. According to several analysts, Bollywood is the second most crucial sector for India’s economic growth.

The Flipside to the Power of Media

Media and means of mass communication have proven to be a double-edged sword, as these tend to influence public opinion in unprecedented ways. The internet especially gives people to break all norms of civility through the mask of anonymity.

Anyone who has ever woken up on the wrong side of the bed now has the ability to express their dissatisfaction on social media or launch a hashtag campaign. They feel more empowered to sway public opinion and advance their cause as a result. Many members of the public continue to be unaware of these tactics or consciously choose not to be. It might be difficult to distinguish trolls and bots from regular users among all the social media users.

Are Boycotts the only Problem?

Beyond boycotts and the expansion of the South Indian film industry, there are many other problems with Hindi films. The problem is that, with a few notable exceptions, Bollywood has been producing absolute garbage as mainstream movies for years, even decades. Unfortunately, the biggest Bollywood artists haven’t grasped the necessity of abandoning their glory days when toxic romances and problematic characters were wholeheartedly accepted by moviegoers.

Credits: ScoopWhoop

It’s not like the average Indian cinemagoer has overnight developed a refined palate, however, due to the sheer availability of content options available through OTTs, we demand much more than melodramatic storylines, lackluster dialogues, and over-the-top action sequences.

That being said, it is important for the audience to use their intelligence and judgement faculty in order to adjudge a movie as good or bad, instead of relying on manufactured mass opinion.

K. R. Swathi is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

Mirza Ghalib and John Keats: A Consummate Work in Comparative Literature


Correlation of Mirza Ghalib and John Keats is like a fresh breeze of spring in the genre of comparative Urdu literature. There is a jot of creation of original books in Urdu literature in the present scenario. Original work in the field of Creative literature, be it in prose or poetry, as well as in criticism or research, is scarce. In such a situation, the acceptance of the latest Urdu book ‘Mirza Ghalib and John Keats: A Comparative Study of Thought and Art’ by Dr. Zaheer Hasan, who lives far away from the well-known Urdu settlements in a city like Mathura, is much prominent.

Scholars perceive poetry as name of a state of the heart. Poetry can be separated from man only when the heart itself is separated from man. The essence of poetry is to put these heart-felt sentiments and emotions into words. Poets, who more perfectly put the vehemence of heart in words were considered to have a greater degree and hold in poetry. In the history of poetry, John Keats and Mirza Ghalib are those high-ranking poets who reached the limits of success in describing the heart of man, especially through such styles and words, that are taken as shining exemplars in the art of poetry.

Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869) and John Keats (1795-1821) both found the same era. Mirza Ghalib was born in 1797, while John Keats was born just two years before him in October 1795. But both died in the month of February. However, Keats bid goodbye to the world in a short period of 26 years and Ghalib was blessed with a long life of 72 years. Ghalib was born into a wealthy family of swordsmen while Keats had access to a rural family background.

Due to domestic problems, Keats did not get the opportunity to get education and Ghalib lacked formal education too. Both lost the custody of their parents in their childhood. Other members of the family were somehow able to raise them up.

Growing up, Keats received his medical education and training in a doctor’s clinic, while Ghalib confined himself to courtship. Both spent most of their lives in economic meagre-ness. Both of them, according to their own taste and intuition, studied their contemporary required disciplines, other sciences and arts in depth. Both remained victims of malady, death, and social attacks of their loved ones throughout their lives. Both fell in love in the days of youth; however both of them had to mourn the failure of their love, due to which they were even treated contemptuously at times. Both remained undaunted by the political turmoil of their time and the scholars of knowledge and literature did not leave any effort to break their courage.

Credits: TheIndianExpress

Ghalib received a lot of moral, social and financial support from his friends and Keats from his friends as well as his publishers. A considerable number of their works got published in their lifetime, but both of them always resented their insufficient acceptance. There are numerous similar coincidences that both have in common and their comparative study yields very useful results. Dr. Z. Hasan has made the comparison of the same individual, technical, and social pictures of these two heroes of history and literature as the subject of scholarly discussion. Moreover, the fact is that it has been presented with great artistic maturity.

Dr. Z. Hasan compared thoughts of Ghalib with Keats’s poetry and concluded that these two great poets explore the eternal emotions of humanity and often seem to be walking on the same path. Similar thoughts arise in their minds; they are saddened by similar sorrows and they both search for peace and contentment in the beauty, fragrance, and colours of the same world. Both respected the tradition but went their separate ways. They studied the ancient poets and remained their devotees, but made their own paths to walk.

Mirza Ghalib is the exponent of lofty philosophical ideas, which include personal concepts about life, death, reality, beauty, and time. John Keats also seems to confirm these ideas in his poetry. Keats reveals the secret of beauty and reality through his relationship of suffering and pain. The industrial revolution and the movement of France did not separate Keats from his duty. He failed in business, failed to get the family out of financial difficulties, failed in love and his poetry was also severely criticized. He failed on several occasions, but despite disappointments, and financial difficulties, he did not back down from his God-given duty. Ghalib also had to face many kinds of sorrows. He also had to witness personal suffering and the persecution of the era of 1857, due to which he presented some images of poverty and misery that will continue to touch and warm human hearts for centuries.

Credits: Amazon

According to Z. Hasan, both the poets are neither philosophers nor moral preachers. They do not like poetry that teaches morality. Neither did they live according to religious beliefs nor a pure life. But the reader will not find philosophy or morals anywhere better than their words.

Dr. Z. Hasan’s original book in English titled ‘John Keats and Mirza Ghalib’ is a summary of his D. Litt. thesis. Last year, he translated this English book into Urdu. Dr. Syed Ikhtiyar Jafri, an Urdu researcher compiled this translation in the form of a scholarly book and published it in 490 pages at the end of 2021. Author’s notable achievement is that he has delved deep into the poetry of Mirza Ghalib and John Keats and presented their gems to the readers. More than that, he then compared the brilliance of these gems with the artistic nimbleness which is the standard of today’s taste and intellect. Therefore, reading this book will be a cause of intellectual development and consolation for all Ghalib as well as Keats and more specifically, poetry lovers.

Syed Ilham Jafri is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Shoa Falak

GAEE JMI organized the Startup Incubation Fest – STAROOM


After weeks and months of relentless preparations, the much awaited startup incubation fest organized by the Institution’s Innovation council in collaboration with GAEE JMI, commenced on 9th September, 2022. Showcasing glimpses of the significant event, The Jamia Review worked in collaboration as their media partner, with an aim to make the ideas on startups and entrepreneurship, accessible to a larger audience.

Credits: Okasha Hasan for TJR.

GAEE JMI is a student-led organization of Jamia Millia Islamia, which aims to advance the visions and goals of GAEE, an international NGO that promotes economic education, financial literacy, and further propagates entrepreneurial incubation among the youth.

With an aim to incubate and boost the aspirations of budding entrepreneurs, Staroom was an insightful 2-day journey which involved a profound mentorship session- Formentar, and a startup investor pitching event- Piranha Tank. With the best mentors, experts and investors on stage, ideas on startups and entrepreneurship were shared and welcomed.


The aim of the first event, Formentar, was to incubate and boost the budding and new faces of startups and entrepreneurship through a mentorship session. This interactive session was presided over by startup advisors, Mr. Kapil Kaur and Mr. Manish Johri.

Credits: Adnan Hasan Khan for TJR.

With 12+ years of leadership experience in vetting scalable and investable startups and SME opportunities, Mr. Kapil Kaur is the founder of the Indian Startup Factory. Mr. Manish Johri is the Vice-President of Agility Ventures and Former Vice-President of Lead Angels. He has over 32 years of experience in the areas of fund raising and growth strategy consulting for Tech companies.

The two mentors addressed the gathering by discussing the basics and importance of startups and entrepreneurship. Addressing the significance of intention, Mr. Kaur initiated an interesting discussion on the difference between “creating wealth and creating money” in a startup company.

Further they engaged with the audience through a Q/A round within which many questions ranging from technical, hypothetical, and of moral values, were addressed. Some notable answers revolved around personal deliberation and motivation, features of a core team, execution of ideas onto actions, perspective of investors, exit strategies of a startup, and personal challenges in entrepreneurship.


An interesting version of Shark Tank, Piranha Tank aimed at inciting young entrepreneurs in their early stages of startups, through funding and mentorship from seasoned investors. Comprised of a screening round and a pitching event, the objective of Piranha tank was to analyze the business acuteness of startup founders.

Credits: Afrin Afshana for TJR.

The investors presiding the event were, Laxmi Datt Sharma, Ms. Shaan Raza, Mr. Sandro Stephen and Mr. Tarun Kumar.

The screening round involved the submission of the startup pitch summary of the participant teams. A total of 7 teams were shortlisted for the final round of the event: Azeedo, Growkheti, Spark India, Swasthamev, Alternate Dynamics, Enactus JMI, and Transcreations.

Each team pitched their startup plan to the investors in the presentation room. After each presentation, the judges cross examined the participant teams and further guided them in developing and improving their startups.

With the final vote of thanks from GAEE JMI, the fest came to a successful end.

Report by: Maryam Hassan for TJR.

A world of factoids


A factoid is an imitation of a fact. They act as a modern and easy substitute for truth, blurring the line between reality and fiction. In political discourse, the distinction between facts and factoids is extremely complex. They are created to serve to a variety of purposes, which would include aiding politicians in covering up their shortcomings with lies.

A factoid is an imitation of a fact. The difference between fact and factoid is that they do not correspond to reality. In terms of content, factoids correlate with lies, rumours, or artistic fiction. They either completely imitate facts or are expressed with the help of evidence of the unreliability of information.

This seemingly candid mode of communication fills an important role in the postmodern world. Think tank scholars often did not see their jobs as discovering facts; they saw their jobs as creating factoids. Factoids, however, are not facts but are treated like one. They are promulgated by a credulous media, the content of which looks plausible. These factoids act as a modern and easy substitute for truth, blurring the line between reality and fiction.

In the social sphere, it is widely believed that hunger would no longer be an issue if a country achieved food security. However, with the current rise in prices of fuel and other items in India, it proves to be an exacerbating problem, especially for the economically weaker sections.

The differentiation of facts and factoids in political discourse is very complex due to the specificity of factuality itself. For example, the claims that the National Register of Citizens will solve the problem of illegal migrants from Bangladesh stand opposed to the lack of clarity regarding the aftermath. The migrants cannot be deported since there is no agreement between India and Bangladesh on this issue. Those identified would be persecuted and left without any rights. The misconceptions about the extent of success of the Swachh Bharat Mission is yet another example of a politically induced factoid.

The possible factoids are produced to foster a positive perception of state affairs in the country, such as the pronounced long-term benefits of demonetization in tackling corruption and consequent GDP growth in the country; to create a negative perception of life in other countries, for example, the United States constantly vowing to preserve the so-called international order that is designed to serve the US’s own interests and perpetuate its hegemony against China; to entertain the public in order to promote certain ideas or products, like the common misconception of cow urine having the properties to cure cancer and other diseases, or to frighten the public in order to justify certain ideologically important actions. For instance, the typical misbelief among the lower illiterate section of the society about the threat of “urban-naxals” to the nation, who, according to them, deserve to be arrested but who in fact happen to be educated men and women, choosing to criticize the government and protest against India’s deeply exploitative social order.

Credits: Facebook

We live in a world of factoids, which do not necessitate an emotional and personal transmission of “information.” A confident addressee may mention factoids in a serious communication, which vary in their levels of credibility when replicated by media organisations.

Bushra Faridi is a student pursuing Geography Honours from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maryam Hassan

The Politics of Sports


This year, India celebrated the glory of its athletes at the Birmingham Commonwealth Games, but also saw the significant exclusion of the All India Football Federation from FIFA. What makes sports exhilarating and the center of attention? Individual striving or the allegorical status associated with nationalism? Winning a World Cup fills the chest with pride and losing the same has to be coped with the memories of the glorious past. Sports and nationalism possess identical features: myths, fervent fever, fostering a common identity, and most of all, the ‘us’ versus ‘them’ narrative.

Fans would disagree with George Orwell’s famous aphorism, which defines sports as “war minus the shooting”. They would argue that their source of recreation has nothing to do with politics. Let alone war. But it is historically clear that both nationalism and resistance to nationalism have accompanied the evolution of modern sports. Everyone knows Tendulkar, for he represents a remarkable brand of patriotism. Everyone also knows Muhammad Ali, for he resisted serving Vietnam in 1967, becoming the icon of the civil rights struggle and the anti-Vietnam war movement.

Credits: Ashley Landis

There are several ways in which nationalism and sports intertwine. Since sports are popular culture, politicians try to create a likeable persona by showing interest, hence using it as a political resource. Sometimes to deflect conflict, other times, to ease diplomatic relations. For instance, US President Nixon maneuvered a visit to China when the latter invited the American table tennis team to compete against the Chinese team. The tactic, however, does not always end well; as with President Bush. He credited US military action in the Middle East for the success of the Iraqi soccer team in the 2004 Summer Olympics. He was severely criticized, and rightfully so, for making such a rash statement.

While elected officials use sports for somewhat selfish reasons, the players use their bread and butter to highlight what is wrong with the system. But it often comes with collateral damage. As mentioned above, Muhammad Ali refused to draft into the army because he did not endorse war. He “used violence inside the ring to promote peace and justice outside of it” (Gorsevski and Butterworth, 2011). He was imprisoned, fined, and stripped of his championship. Similarly, the International Olympics Committee dismissed John Carlos and Tommie Smith in 1968 for their protest against racism. It was not until decades later that these athletes found support for their political stand.

We are familiar with the idea of sports fostering national identity. Most games begin with national anthems of the playing teams. The gesture is taken for granted as if it were part of the sport itself. The media contributes to the narrative as they eulogize sports-people as mythical figures who accomplish grand achievements for the sake of their fellow citizens.

What has made sport uniquely effective as a medium for inculcating national feelings, at all events for males, is the ease with which even the least political or public individual can identify with the nation as symbolised by young persons excelling as something practically every man wants to be good at. The imagined community of millions (nation) seems more real as a team of eleven named people.

EJ Hobsbawm

The most prominent example of this obvious relationship is the quadrennial event of the Olympics. The opening ceremony traditionally involves a Parade of Nations. Athletes cannot enter the competition as individual competitors, but can only participate as national representatives. Olympics, therefore, laminates individuals striving as worthy of appreciation only when it brings laurels back home.

The problem with sports becoming a national identity lies in its equating a good fan with a good citizen. Fans are still expected to root for their favorites’ when a team does not play well. If we were to apply the same logic to politics, would then a good citizen be obliged to accept the decisions of its government without questioning its soundness? Is then the criticism of a public policy enough to condemn a citizen as anti-national?

Besides, it is the athletes who incur a loss in any given scenario. Be it when a nation withdraws from international competitions for political reasons or when the players express their critical view of the status quo. Even the romanticism of them as heroic figures is problematic. It is commonplace to send death threats to sports-persons, who are also human and inevitably bound to fail sometimes. After all, losing a game means embarrassing the nation in front of the entire world.

Not to mention how loss in sports is usually attributed to historically disadvantaged groups. When the Indian women’s hockey team lost to Australia in the 2021 Tokyo Olympics, two upper caste men were quick to reproach Vandana Katariya. They said the loss was due to “too many Dalits on the team”. Of course, sports can divert one’s attention from real issues. But the very same sports often involve the problems that we desperately wish to escape from.

Credits: Reuters

In India, cricket takes the crown as the ultimate “patriotic litmus test” (MukulKaravan, 2021). Imagine watching cricket and not rooting for India, but the opposing side. Even the idea of it sounds utterly perverse. That is because patriotism in our country is synonymous with cricket.

Is then there a way to enjoy sports without the national lens shoved in front of our eyes? Perhaps one would mention club and franchise sports, a consequence of contemporary capitalism. The India Premier League is a domestic event primarily meant for Indian spectators. It has gained immense popularity since its advent in 2008, particularly for the team spirit displayed by players, irrespective of their nationalities. Could IPL, ridiculed for being theatrical, actually be more professional than the less profitable international competition? The answer could not be more distant from a yes. Militaristic chauvinism is just as home at IPL as it is during the World Cup season. The American National Football League suffers from the same fate. No national teams, but nationalism remains intact.

Alisha Uvais is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

The Netflix Effect – Formula One’s Rise to Global Popularity


The toughest task for any sport is to increase its audience. They usually have a set demographic for the same, but Formula One has managed to achieve tremendous growth in its audience, thanks to Netflix. Debuting in 2019, the Drive to Survive docu-series has resulted in a 56 percent viewership increase for the sport. An interesting debate succeeds the rising popularity of Formula One – is football finally going to be toppled?

During the coronavirus epidemic, Netflix has cemented itself into many people’s daily life. A recent phenomenon, called the “Netflix Effect“, has emerged which shows the actual impact of the streaming service. Due to Netflix, things have changed. Our search and buying behaviors have altered dramatically as a result of the growth of the streaming service. For example, a chess boom was brought on by the drama series Queen’s Gambit, which follows the talented young chess player Elizabeth Harmon. Chess and chess rules searches instantly doubled, while sales of chess sets increased by a staggering 1,000%. By this point, it should be quite evident how Netflix really does have a significant impact on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Netflix is now more than just an entertainment-focused streaming service and at this point has evolved into a trend radar.

One such product of the Netflix Effect is the sport – Formula 1.

Credits: Formula 1

If you are unfamiliar with Formula 1, the fundamental idea is straightforward: drivers drive open-wheel, single-seat racing cars around a track at different venues around the world with one aim in mind – to win the race. The driver who crosses the finish line first after completing a predetermined number of laps is declared the winner.

It’s a combination of determined drivers, famous car manufacturing companies – Mercedes, Ferrari, McLaren, etc., and a perfect dose of competition and drama.

Drive to Survive, a Netflix F1 series is what contributed to the hype surrounding the Formula 1 races. In a recent survey, more than half of the fans who identified themselves as Formula 1 fans attributed their fandom to this behind-the-scenes docu-series. The show debuted in 2019 on Netflix with a 10-episode season, filmed during the previous year’s championship. It has since gained immense popularity by providing a close-up look at a traditionally private sport, resulting in a 56 percent increase in the viewership with the ESPN numbers jumping from 548,000 to 934,000. A sport usually has a tremendously difficult time expanding its audience and is rarely able to diversify its fan bases since people have a tendency to become rooted in their ways, and yet Formula 1 managed to achieve this, thanks to the “Netflix effect.”

Credits: Formula 1

With more than 400 million viewers, Formula 1 is one of the most popular sports in the world. People are going from ‘I’ve never watched a Formula 1 race in my life,’ to ‘I’ll never miss a Formula 1 race again.”

An excerpt from a recent article reads, “How popular is Formula 1? Let’s just say football might need to worry.”

The words provide some interesting food for thought, as football’s dominance as the number one sport in terms of popularity was seemingly unmatched. But with the advent of Formula 1’s rising popularity, coupled with the Netflix Effect, the two might just clash headfirst into each other.

Despite increasing the audience for the sport by portraying everything that occurs both on and off the F1 circuit, the show has faced some harsh criticism. Max Verstappen, the reigning world champion, is not a big fan of the docu-series and he has been outspoken about his distaste for it, saying that it misrepresented him and other drivers. The main problem is that ‘Drive to Survive’ purposefully edits videos of actual races and driver interactions to give the impression that there is more driver drama than what is the truth. A lot of storylines that don’t really exist have been created to keep the audience engaged.

Some of the Netflix-enhanced rivalries that don’t actually exist and were created to make the show dramatic include the tension between Daniel Ricciardo and Carlos Sainz about the seat in McLaren and the portrayal of the tension between Daniel Ricciardo and Lando Norris when both happen to be friends off the track.

Despite the show’s exaggeration of action, the Netflix Effect remains persistent and has helped this highest class of international racing reach the zenith that it deserves.

Mariam Tuba is a student pursuing Psychology from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Anzal Khan

Nitish for PM 2024?


On August 10, after taking his eighth oath as chief minister of Bihar, Nitish Kumar sneered at Prime Minister Narendra Modi by saying, “He won in 2014, but will he in 2024?” When asked if he wanted to run for prime minister at the time, he had already assured that he is “not a contender for anything”. “The question to ask is if the person who came in 2014 will win in 2024,” he said.

Bihar’s constant societal struggles have yielded great philosophical and political innovations since the time of the Buddha. Bihar strikes the chord of monumental dissent when others conform. In contrast to other states where opposition governments have been overthrown by BJP, Bihar is the first state that has ousted a BJP-affiliated administration.

Credits: PTI

Five days before India celebrated its 75th anniversary of independence, Bihar made a major political change. The JD(U) left the BJP-led NDA alliance and rejoined the Mahagathbandhan giving an excellent news to the opposition. It is nothing less than a political coup that has the potential to alter the political situation in the country.

When it seemed like 2024 was already decided, Bihar’s power transition created more room for opposition politics. The effort to use the Eknath Shinde card in Bihar was thwarted by the chief minister, Nitish Kumar‘s switch again. He may very well have made it more difficult for the BJP to win an outright majority in the 2024 Lok Sabha elections as a result of his actions. It’s terrible news for the BJP because it hasn’t yet proven itself as a viable independent force in Bihar. This shift in Bihar has national relevance that can not be understated, since now BJP doesn’t look invincible.

Bihar’s political shifts are unique to the state. However, Bihar has historically served as a catalyst for national, social, and political transformation. Additionally, there is reason to believe that significant political events in this state at this time could portend change on a larger scale.

From a national standpoint, Nitish’s move is intriguing because Bihar is heavily caste-driven and does not share Uttar Pradesh’s Hindutva dominance. In Bihar, the Mahagathbandhan could easily defeat the BJP in the 2024 Lok Sabha elections. The results of the elections in Bihar in 2024 would more than balance out the BJP’s gains in Maharashtra.

The only prerequisite is that until then, Nitish and Tejashwi Yadav must maintain a semblance of unity and harmony. The Mahagathbandhan may prove to be a reliable coalition for the ensuing two years if the determination to oppose the BJP is strong enough.

According to the 2019 Lok Sabha results, the aggregate vote share of the new seven-party alliance, adds up to over 50%. This combo appears to be powerful. The seven-party coalition in Bihar is therefore a cause of concern for BJP.

Of course, the BJP will use every tactic they can think of to undermine the new coalition. The investigative authorities must already be cleaning up old records that were saved for such a moment.

However, Biharis can react much more vehemently against the oppressive methods employed by the Centre. After all, Bihar is not Maharashtra. Politics in the opposition will undoubtedly intensify and become more compelling.

This change in power in Bihar has important ramifications. First, the BJP’s expansionist plan has come to a standstill. The ruling party put in extra effort to make India free of the opposition. The plan to topple opposition governments by splintering parties through abusing governmental agencies and financial power may have been derailed.

The BJP has tasted its own medicine, and not long after shattering and devouring the Shiv Sena to form the government in Maharashtra. The BJP can now be neutralized; its tactics against opposition governments, parties, and leaders can be defeated, which is a shift.

Moreover, a broad-based coalition government by all opposition parties is a big development. The most powerful alliance of political positions and social groups Bihar has ever seen is the coalition led by the JD(U) and RJD. In fact, no state has ever had a state government formed with the support of the entire opposition. This can give national opposition groups new hope to form alliances to oppose the BJP together outside of Bihar, as they have so far remained divided and discouraged. Indian voters have been asking themselves repeatedly “Who is there to unite and lead the Opposition?” as they search for an alternative. The Congress and all other parties are at a loss for solutions. The political tremor in Bihar has now shown what appears to be a likely solution while also highlighting the importance of opposition unity in curbing the BJP’s unstoppable advance.

Early in the 1970s, when Jayaprakash Narayan began a valiant fight against Indira Gandhi‘s autocratic government, Bihar offered Indian politics a new direction. Nitish Kumar joined the JP Movement when he was a young student leader, and he was imprisoned for 19 months during the Emergency (1975-77). He is now waging war against yet another dictatorial rule. Bihar seems to be offering much-needed hope at a time when democracy and other cherished Constitutional values are being threatened and risk of communal divisiveness is escalating.

There is no doubt that a grand alliance is required, but that will only take place when the political opposition’s senior leaders communicate with one another in a spirit of cooperation and sharing that maximises the good for everybody. However, the alliance won’t last long without a clear understanding on important political matters. Momentary unity for the sole purpose of ousting the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) will remain susceptible to the money, power, and political scheming of the ruling party, which they have plenty of. The fundamentals of good governance are what need to be converged, not a laundry list of a thousand issues.

Credits: Wikipedia

The current status of the country demands a democratic revolution rather than politicians fiddling with electoral math. That also entails a change in the way our country thinks, not only in terms of the new governance. A coalition to dethrone the current government is insufficient; rather, we must work together to forge a stunning alternative.

Moneera Aiman is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maryam Hassan

The Freedom Movement and Role of Indian Muslims: Inception and Throughout


India is celebrating its 75th Independence Day with zeal and elation. It was a result of vigorous and determined attempts as well as sacrifices that India gained its freedom in 1947 from the despot British rulers. People from several religious and cultural backgrounds took part in this movement, but the outstanding participation and great sacrifices of Muslims under the leadership of their sincere leaders and religious scholars are generally being overlooked, if only because of the lack of information. If it continues so, perhaps the coming generation will not even know that we and our ancestors also played an unforgettable role in India’s freedom struggle which overthrew the British and ended their power not only from India but also from the Muslim countries of Asia and Africa, where its grip was considered strong and its fall, imminent.

The dignified Indians were persistent in their resistance against the oppressive rule and tyranny of the British in India from the very first day. This resistance gradually laid the foundation of a great movement that became so spirited for the freedom of India that the then considered invincible power of the British could not suppress it. It was the result of myriad sacrifices the participants of this movement had made within a century that proved that Indians would not accept tyrant British as their rulers under any circumstances.

Credits: Indian Muslim Blog

It is generally said that the armed struggle against the British started in 1857. This is a lie that has been deliberately made public so that the movement which started a hundred years before 1857 following the resistance and revolutions led by Siraj-ud-Daula of Bengal in 1757, Majnu Shah in 1776 and 1780, Hyder Ali in 1767, his son Sultan Tipu in the late eighteenth century, Maulvi Shariatullah and his son Dadu Miyan in 1812 and Syed Ahmad Shaheed in 1831 against the British can be buried in the dust of history. Moreover, this way, the countrymen remain unaware that the spark of hatred against the British was burning in the hearts of the Muslims from the day they set their unholy feet on this land. For a hundred years, the Muslims fought against them with full force and power under the direction of their scholars, until 10 May 1857, when the second phase of the freedom movement began and non-Muslim citizens also registered their participation in the freedom struggle.

The first among the Indian rulers to realize the threat of the British was Fateh Ali Khan Sultan Tipu, the brave and heroic ruler of Mysore. Sultan Tipu, also known as the ‘Tiger of Mysore‘, with his mature vision and extraordinary intelligence, realized that if no strong and organized power stood before the British, they would divide the entire country into provinces and states. He fought four wars against the British under his father Hyder Ali as well as after him. In 1799, a British-led coalition of nearly 50,000 troops – an army made up of the best of all the British East India Company’s client states marched towards Mysore. This was a very vast army as compared to Tipu’s. The British were unable to defeat Tipu Sultan due to his valour and war tactics anyhow. Therefore, the British following their old tactic bought traitors like Tipu Sultan’s Prime Minister Mir Sadiq, another minister Mir Moinuddin, an army general Mir Qamaruddin, artillery in-charge Ghulam Ali Langra and army chief Pandit Purnia. These faithless traitors opened the gates of the Sultan’s fort for the English troops at their own cost. The Sultan set out to fight with his Muslim general, Raja Khan, but he too was influenced by Pandit Purnia and joined the British. Despite asking for water on the very battlefield, this traitor did not even give water to the Sultan but advised him to surrender himself to the British. It was after hearing this that Sultan Tipu uttered the historic sentence which is still written in gold letters, “To me, one day’s life of a lion is better than a hundred years of a jackal’s life”.

The battle of 1857 plays one of the most significant roles in the history of India, in which the revolutionaries united and raised their voices against the British, recognizing the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar as the king on 11 May 1857 and continued to fight against the British. Now the king was not a nominal king, but his authority was proclaimed. The royal decree had already begun. Now the King was playing the leading role. Within a few days, Delhi was captured by defeating the British. Being the central figure in this alteration of sovereignty, Bahadur Shah Zafar was convicted and exiled to Rangoon. In the year 1858, the crescent flag of our majesty was taken down and the Union Jack was hoisted. On the one hand, the British were hoisting the flag of their values on the citadel of our majesty and power, and on the other hand, we lined up to compete with them in the field of freedom.

Credits: Pinterest

in 1915, a government was formed by some revolutionaries in Kabul, Afghanistan, separated from India under the British, presided by Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh with Professor Barkatullah Bhopali, serving as its Prime Minister. This regime came into being under the ‘Reshmi Rumal Movement’. The pioneering founders and operators of this movement were Maulana Mahmood ul Hasan Deobandi, Maulana Ubaidullah Sindhi, Professor Barkatullah Bhopali, and Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh, etc. These people had established a freedom struggle party (Inqalabi Jamat) in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, which continued to implement its strategy after 1905. The silk handkerchief was given by Maulana Mahmood-ul-Hasan, a famous revolutionary and theologian of Deoband, to the members of his revolutionary party (Jamaat). His responsibility was to lead a powerful rebellion against the British by forming an alliance with the Ottoman Empire, the Emirate of Afghanistan, and the German Empire. A special day and time were fixed for this but the plan was revealed before it could succeed. These handkerchiefs were made in a special way, if some of their threads were moved back and forth, the signature of Maulana Mahmud-ul-Hasan would emerge. On the basis of many reasons, this movement failed, but by keeping its experiences and ideologies in the center, the wave of national independence arose after 1920 and the emergence of violent and non-violent successful movements on a large scale had the light of this movement working behind them. Despite its failure, it has its own special place in history.

It is an undeniable certitude, explicitly penned by prominent History writers of Urdu, Hindi, and English like Santimoy Roy, Sir Edward Thompson, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and many more, that Muslims who contributed with their utmost capacity throughout India’s struggle for independence were Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Shaheed Abdul Hamid, Husain Ahmad Madani, Abul Kalam Azad, Muhammad Ali, Shibli Nomani, Shaukat Ali, Allama Iqbal, Mohammad Barkatullah, Bi Amma (mother of Ali brothers), Badaruddin Tyabji, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Dr. M.A. Ansari, Dr. Siafudeen Kichlu, Dr. Basheer Ahmad, Syed Ameer Ali, Dr. Syed Muhammad, Hasrat Mohani, Nawab Abdul Latheef, Altaf Hussain Hali, Syed Ahmad Sirhindi, Syed Ahmad Bareily, Munshi Karamat Ali, Munshi Zakaullah, Begum Hazrat Mahal and countless others stand as shining exemplars.

Syed Ilham Jafri is a student pursuing English Literature from Jamia Millia Islamia.

Edited by: Maria Aqdas

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